apush chapter 1-15 vocabulary

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Columbian Exchange

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US History

211 Terms

1

Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.

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2

Conquistadors

Early-sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru. (Examples Cortez, Pizarro, Francisco.)

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3

Aztec

a member of the American Indian people dominant in Mexico before the Spanish conquest of the 16th century.

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4

Maya

Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar.

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5

Incas

Highly advanced South American civilization that occupied present-day Peru until it was conquered by Spanish forces under Francisco Pizarro in 1532. The Incas developed sophisticated agricultural techniques, such as terrace farming, in order to sustain large, complex societies in the unforgiving Andes Mountains.

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6

Pueblo Revolt

Native American revolt against the Spanish in late 17th century; expelled the Spanish for over 10 years; Spain began to take an accommodating approach to Natives after the revolt

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7

Encomienda System

system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them skills.

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8

Protestant Reformation

A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.

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9

Tenochtitlan

Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.

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10

Hernan Cortes

Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain.

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11

St. Jean de Brebeuf

Early 1600's and wrote the first Huron dictionary and taught them about the Christian Faith

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12

Asiento System

System that took slaves to the New World to work for the Spanish. Required that a tax be paid to the Spanish ruler for each slave brought over.

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13

Algonquin

Native Americans found living over a large area from the Atlantic coast to the Great Lakes.

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14

Huron

Indian tribes that were helped by the French to defeat the Iroquois

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15

Iroquois Confederacy

An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England.

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16

Roanoke

Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.

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17

Valladolid Debate

Concerned the treatment of natives of the New World. It concerned two main attitudes towards the conquest of the Americas. Bartolomé de las Casas argued Amerindians were creations of God and deserved same treatment as Christian Europeans. Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda thought that the natives should be slaves because of their crimes against nature and against God.

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18

Bartolome de Las Casas

First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor.

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19

Juan Gines de Sepulveda

Spanish philosopher who was in the Great Debate. Opposed de las Casas, and believed the conquest of the Natives was good

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20

New Laws of 1542

laws instituted by the king of Spain after he was convinced by Bartolomé de las Casas. They outlawed the forced labor of the Native Americans, noted that the natives should be given religious instruction, and made it difficult for people to inherit encomienda estates

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21

Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore

1694 he was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics (CUL)

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22

Maryland Act of Toleration

1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.

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23

Roger Williams

A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south

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24

Anne Hutchinson

She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.

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25

Halfway Covenant (1662)

A policy of the Puritans that allowed even those who hadn't had a conversion experience to join the church. It gave "half membership."

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26

Quakers

English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania

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27

Jamestown

The first permanent English settlement in North America, found in East Virginia

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28

Virginia House of Burgesses

The first elected assembly in the New World, established in 1619

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29

John Rolfe

He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.

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30

Starving Time

The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the "starving time" to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.

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31

Puritans

English Protestant dissenters who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. They founded Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629.

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32

Separatists

People who wanted to have a separate, or different church. Also known as Pilgrims.

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33

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

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34

Plymouth

Colony settled by the Pilgrims. It eventually merged with Massachusetts Bay colony.

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35

John Winthrop

Puritan governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Speaker of "City upon a hill"

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36

Restoration Colonies

Colonies created as a result from the land grants in North America given by King Charles II of England The two major restoration colonies were Pennsylvania and Carolina.

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37

English Civil War

Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king

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38

Oliver Cromwell

English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.

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39

King James I

English king who gave charter to Virginia company, searching for gold and a route to Indies; eventually revoked charter of Virginia Company (dislilked House of Burgesses and tobacco), putting it directly under his control

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40

Metacomet's War

The most prolonged conflict between native Americans and Europeans in 17th century, this war began with the Wampanoag resistance of English incursions into their land led by Metacomet. After three years of savage fighting, the English and the Mohawks won.

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41

Bacon's Rebellion

1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.

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42

Governor Berkeley

Governor of Virginia, had a policy that favored Native Americans, refused to retaliate against Natives, led to Bacon's Rebellion.

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43

New England Confederation

New England colonists formed the New England Confederation in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.

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44

Chesapeake Colonies

Term for the colonies of Maryland and Virginia

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45

Mercantilism

An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

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46

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.

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47

Dominion of New England

1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.

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48

Sir Edmund Andros

Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England

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49

Glorious Revolution

A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.

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50

Indentured Servants

Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years

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51

Triangular Trade

A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa

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52

Headright System

Employed in the tobacco colonies to encourage the importation of indentured servants, the system allowed an individual to acquire fifty acres of land if he paid for a laborer's passage to the colony.

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53

Middle Passage

A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies

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54

Benjamin Franklin

American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.

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55

Phillis Wheatley

First African American female writer to be published in the United States. Her book Poems on Various Subjects was published in 1773, pioneered African-American literature. One of the most well- known poets in America during her day; first African American to get a volume of poetry published.

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56

Great Awakening

Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.

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57

Jonathan Edwards

Preacher during the First Great Awakening; "Sinners in the Hands of Angry God"

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58

George Whitefield

English clergyman who was known for his ability to convince many people through his sermons. He involved himself in the Great Awakening in 1739 preaching his belief in gaining salvation.

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59

John Peter Zenger

Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.

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60

Enlightenment

A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.

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61

Patrick Henry

-a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799)

-give me liberty or give me death

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62

Stamp Act Congress

A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.

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63

Sons of Liberty

A group of colonists who formed a secret society to oppose British policies at the time of the American Revolution

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64

Daughters of Liberty

An organization formed by women prior to the American Revolution They got together to protest treatment of the colonies by their British Rulers

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65

John Dickinson

Conservative leader who wrote "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania"; advocated for colonial rights but urged conciliation with England & opposed the Declaration of Independence; helped to write the Articles of Confederation.

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66

Samuel Adams

American Revolutionary leader and patriot, Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence

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67

James Otis

A colonial lawyer who defended (usually for free) colonial merchants who were accused of smuggling. Argued against the writs of assistance and the Stamp Act.

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68

Committees of Correspondence

Organizations in each of the American colonies created to keep colonists abreast of developments with the British; served as powerful molders of public opinion against the British

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69

Intolerable Acts

A series of laws set up by Parliament to punish Massachusetts for its protests against the British

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70

King George III

King of England during the American Revolution

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71

Salutary Neglect

An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies

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72

Pontiac's Rebellion

A 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area

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73

Proclamation of 1763

A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.

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74

Albany Plan of Union

plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown

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75

Peace of Paris (1763)

Ended the Seven Year's War, France had to abandon all claim to North America; Great Britain received Canada and the eastern half of the Mississippi Valley, Spain got back the Philippine Islands and Cuba, but had to cede East and West Florida to England

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76

Stamp Act

1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.

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77

Declaratory Act

Act passed in 1766 after the repeal of the stamp act; stated that Parliament had authority over the the colonies and the right to tax and pass legislation "in all cases whatsoever."

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78

Townshend Acts

A tax that the British Parliament passed in 1767 that was placed on leads, glass, paint and tea

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79

Tea Act

Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party

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80

Boston Tea Party

protest against increased tea prices in which colonists dumped british tea into boston harbor

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81

Coercive Acts

This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.

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82

John Locke

17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.

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83

John Adams

America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."

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84

First Continental Congress

September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts

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85

Second Continental Congress

Convened in May 1775, the Congress opposed the drastic move toward complete independence from Britain. In an effort to reach a reconciliation, the Congress offered peace under the conditions that there be a cease-fire in Boston, that the Coercive Acts be repealed, and that negotiations begin immediately. King George III rejected the petition.

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86

Olive Branch Petition

A document sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George III, proposing a reconciliation between the colonies and Britain

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87

Thomas Jefferson

Wrote the Declaration of Independence, 3rd president of the United States

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88

Declaration of Independence

the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain

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89

George Washington

1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)

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90

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery

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91

Paul Revere

American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride (celebrated in a poem by Longfellow) to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)

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92

William Dawes

American patriot who rode with Paul Revere to warn that the British were advancing on Lexington and Concord (1745-1799)

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93

Battle of Saratoga

American victory over British troops in 1777 that was a turning point in the American Revolution.

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94

Valley Forge

Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops

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95

Battle of Bunker Hill

First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.

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96

Yorktown

Last battle of the war of independence in 1789 where the British surrendered.

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97

Ticonderoga

American revolutionary troops captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British in 1775 and gained 50 cannons; raised morale and made French join war

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98

James Madison

"Father of the Constitution," Federalist leader, and fourth President of the United States.

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99

Alexander Hamilton's Financial Plan

raise money through taxes, create a national bank, and promote protective tariffs

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100

Federalists

A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.

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