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who were the FIRST people to discover North America

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who were the FIRST people to discover North America

40,000 years ago people crossed from asia via a land/ice bridge (connected Asia and Siberia) evolved into hundreds of native tribes

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3 FIRST early highly developed tribes

Mayas in P.D. Guatemala, Aztecs in Central Mexico, Incas in Peru

Very successful - diet, organizations, empires

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North American Culture

vast amounts of languages, smaller population, less advanced/complex, great cultivation (mexican cultivation spread northward), men made tools and hunted, women planted and gathered

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southwest settlers

dry region, P.D. New Mexico, Arizona tribes - Anasazi, Pueblos, Hohokam overcame dryness with irrigation systems

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northwestern settlers

P.D. Alaska, California long houses, plank houses, hunting, fishing, nuts, berries, large totem poles! natural barriers (mountains)

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great plain settlers

nomadic group, moved on horses, hunted the buffalo and bison, supplies food, clothes, etc.

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midwest settlers

rich food supply, hunting, fishing, agriculture tribe Cahokia

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northeast settlements

hunting and farming, Iroquois confederation - 5 tribes powerful politival union

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why did Europe want to explore

god, gold, glory

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what allowed for exploration

new technology

  • compass

  • caravel

  • astrolabe

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Issue with trade rout

The silk road made prices of silk, gold, other goods, very high so they wanted to find a new passage to asia (ended up finding NA instead)

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Chris Columbus

Attempted to reach asia by sailing west but ended up discovering new world. Funed by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella from Spain. Brutal actions towards Natives.

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Columbian Exchange

exchange, of plants, animals, good between Europe and NA, also trade of slaves across the Atlantic. Trade of diseases

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Treaty of Tordesillas

line splitting north america for spain and portugal

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spanish conquests

herman cortez - aztecs pizarro - incas

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spanish explorers who seized land from natives, sent board filled with gold, silver, and minerals back to Europe

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Encomienda system

Hierarchy to make Indians work under Spanish people, forced labor

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First Engligh settlement

Roanoke - fail

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French claims

samuel de champlin @ Quebec

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Dutch claims

henry hudson @ hudson river & NY became New Amsterdam

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Spanish settlements

Florida San Augustine, Santa Fe New Mexico, Texas, California missions to convert by fathher Junipero Serra

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Spanish rule in early america

Harsh rule, considered people from NA to be weak and inferior, took over aztecs and incas, disease killed thousands, forced labor, encomienda

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Bartolome de Las Casas

fought against encominda system, black legend

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English policy

sometimes they beenfited each other (3 sis farming), intermarried with each other, however they considered them inferior

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French policy

made the allies, good relationship, good for trade, furs, beavers pelts allied w huron against Iroquois

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Native American reaction

shock, some tried to fight back, some tried to create allies, some tried to move away

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a name for the Native Americans of the present-day southwestern US Pueblos were also apartment like structures make of adobe and mud that formed the "towns" of the pueblo people

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joint stock company

allowed people to pool their money together and allowed them to raise money for exploration

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Tribe that was located in the Southwest who lived in apartment like structures

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Agricultural Revolution

humans began to grow crops

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Mississipian Culture

centered in the southern Mississippi River. Flourished between 900-1350.Beans, corn and squash. Built towns around plazas. Trade system. Climate and disease

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middle ground

A borderland between European empires and Indian sovereignty where various native peoples and Europeans lived side by side in relative harmony.

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beaver wars

series of bloody conflicts, occurring between 1640s and 1680s, during which the Iroquois fought the French for control of the fur trade in the east and the Great Lakes region

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Spanish Christians reconquered the Iberian peninsula from Muslim occupiers.

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Henry the Navigator

Portugal's prince who sponsored many voyages of exploration;

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A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to a king in return for loyalty and military service

feudalism -> capitalism

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caste system, hierarcy

Mestizo - spanishxenglish Creoles - blackxenglish - born in new world Peninsulares - spanish born in new world Mullatos -whitexblack Metic - europeanxindian

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Slave trade

  • portugal and british dominated

  • most slaves went to carribeans or SA

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black legend, Valladolid debate

black legend - idea that spaniards were only doing things for their own gain Valladolid debate - moral debate over treatment of indigenous

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to get people to move there, 50 people = land

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French Catholic missionaries that attempted to convert the Indians to Catholicism

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Spanish religious converters

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how were the english colonies established

identity and authority from a charter

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types of colonies

corporate - jont-stock (EX; Jamestown) royal - under the authority of King proprietary - under authority of individuals granted charters by the kingjoint

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first successful english colony

Jamestown, Virgina - king james 1 chartered Virginia company, joint-stock company,

Early problems - location: swampy -> causes diseases people's intentions were too invested in gaining money that they didn't have enough food to eat, conflicts between english and natives (powhatan)

Solution: John Smith! John rolfe and Pcahontas got married. Rolfe developed tobacco - cash crop! Because of all the hardhsip w virgina company, it was turned to a royal colony

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Pilgrims vs Puritans

pilgrims were puritan seperatists

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The Plymouth Colony

radical dissenters left England to escape religious persecution, 100 pilgrims came over on the mayflower, arrived in plymouth instead of virginia

early hardships - hard winter, made allies with natives on thanksgiving

natives helped them learn 3 sister farming, fish head

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Massachusetts Bay colony

moderate dissenters wanted reform, escaped religious persecution, sought religious freedom, puritan founded, thousands of puritans to Boston

city upon a hill - john winthrop

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Great Migration

thousands of purtians lead by john winthrop, 15,000 more settlers!

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House of Burgesses

The first representative assembly in the new world, virginia company. elected leaders

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mayflower compact

document to establish themselves, practice self-government, pledged all desicions be for the majority

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maryland colony

lord baltimore, split virginia colony, safe haven for fellow catholics

hypocracy - preached free relgion and tolerance but the overwhelming pop of christians made people who denied the divinity of jesus "bad" - made them justified to be killed

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indentured servents

Exchanged work for passage to the New World.

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head right system

the system by which whoever paid for the passage of a laborer acquired 50 acres of land - virginia

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bacons rebellion

sir william berkeley failed to protest small farms in virginia so bacon retaliated. he burned down the jamestown settlement

after indentured servents became free they had nowhere to go

ignited 2 problems

  1. sharp class differences

  2. colonial resistance to royal control

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Rhode Island

roger williams went to boston but he had different ideas and was banished. allowed catholics, quakers, jews to worship freely. first baprist church.

And anne hutchinson also had different ideas and started portsmouth near providence

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Thomas hooker led puritans to connecticut - colony of hartford first ever consitiuation - orders of connecticut

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new hampshire

last colony, royal colony

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halfway covenant

A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.

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new england conferderation

plymouth, massachusetts bay, onnecticut, new haven 2 reps from each formed army

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king phillips war

king phillip = metacom wampanoags vs NE over colonists constantly encroaching on indian rerriotry NE colonists won

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purpose of carolinas

restoration colony

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South Carolina

economy - fur trade, plantations w slaves

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North Carolina

small self sufficent tobacco farms

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New York

compelled dutch to give up new Amsterdam king granted his brother, duke of york, the land

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nj colony

nj was split in 2 lord berkley religious freedom 2 jerseys - combined in 2

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Religious Society of Friends men=women william penn (pennsylvania)

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last colony, buffer between carolinas and Spanish threats

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Opechancanough's uprising

conflict with the English. English took his land. Powhatan's brother - Pocahontas's daughter (dies during her trip to Europe).

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Cotton Mather

minister, part of Puritan New England important families, a sholar, one of first americans to promote vaccination of smallpox when it was believed to be dangerous, strongly believed on witches, encouraged witch trials in salem

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James Ogthethorpes

Georgia -help debtors by banning gambling, alcohol and slavery

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Stono Rebellion

largest slave rebellion. They tried to get to Florida from freedom, but the militia came and killed many of them. After the Stono rebellion, they passed higher slave codes, slavery becomes more strict, limit how they can interact with each other, do not teach them how to read, more punishments, control gets tighter.

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Economic system of trading nations; belief that a nation's power was directly related to its wealth

pie of wealth - limited $$$

goal to become self sufficent, provide raw materials, enrich the mother country

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navigation acts

  1. trade to and from the colonies ONLY by english ships

  2. all goods imported into the colonies through english ports

  3. goods can only be imported to England

impact - caused NE shipbuilding economy to go up, chesapeak tobacco monopoly, BUT severely limited manufacturing, high prices

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enforcement of navigation acts

salutory neglect, lax with rules lots of corruption mass bay charter revoked as it was the highest amount of smuggling

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dominion of NE

appointed by James II to raise $ and combined the great colonies of NE under rule of Sir Edmund Andros

very unpopular

caused glorious revolution

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Glorious Revolution

James II replaced by Mary and William, reestablished original charters

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institution of slavery

triangular trade demand of slaves up cheap labor, dependable workforce, reduced migration

chattal slavery - run in the families, inherited racism and slavery became a key part of society

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triangular trade

royal african company, awful travel conditions (middle passage), africa, NE, west indies

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covenant chain

An alliance between the Iroquois Confederacy and the colony of New York which sought to establish Iroquois dominance over all other tribes and thus put New York in an economically and politically dominant position among the other colonies

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Anglo-Powhatan War

Jamestown vs Powhatan Confederacy peace -marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe

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Pequot War

1637 The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.

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Yamasee War

war between the South Carolina settlers and the local natives who did not like being used for slavery and threatened for their land

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Odauah Equiano

enslaved person who learned to read and write and wrote what happened on the middle passage

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great awakening

old lights wanted rationalism, intelect new lights wanted to go back to spiritual life, create more branches of christianity

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famouse new lights

George Whitefield - toured the colonies and gave sermons Jonathan Edwards - new light minister in new england - famous sermon "sinners in the hands of an angry god", started the great awakening

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became more like England -Political systems and laws were based on English models - same trial by jury, punishments, assembly, etc. -English Legal traditions Most business is with English because of the Navigation Acts - same clothes, same tools Transatlantic print culture - books, articles, we have the same cultural experience Same language - English IMPORTANT - although they disagreed many times, they wanted to be treated like Brits and over time distrust grew

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human self worth up

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increased bc ppl wanted to read bible

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Poor Richard's Almanac

Benjamin Franklin, it was filled with witty, insightful, and funny bits of observation and common sense advice

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Zenger Case

tried for being against government HOWEVER since it was true, it was legal!

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Seven Years' War (French and Indian War)

War fought in the colonies from 1754 to 1763 between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio River Valley area. The English won the war and the Peace of Paris was negotiated in 1763.

effects - supremacy of England in North America

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Albany plan of union

"join or die" - ben franklin

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Pontiac's Rebellion

1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.

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Proclomation Line of 1763

Prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains and those who were already there had to return east. The British imposed this to not anger the Native Americans. This built resentment among the colonies.

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Sugar Act 1764

law passed by the British Parliament setting taxes on molasses and sugar imported by the colonies

  • Cut the taxes in half but enforced them

  • Expanded taxable items to include wines, cloth, coffee, tropical food, silk

  • Closer supervision on American merchant exports

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Quartering Act 1765

provide food and living quarters in the colonies

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Stamp Act

1765; law by George grenville that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.

led to resentment, boycotts, protests in newspapers

violent protest was effective

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Formation of sons and daughters of liberty

stamp act worked against the crown violent but effective

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declaratory act

Act passed in 1766 after the repeal of the stamp act; stated that Parliament had authority over the the colonies and the right to tax and pass legislation "in all cases whatsoever."

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