Physics Definitions

Studied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Velocity

1 / 170

Tags and Description

171 Terms

1

Velocity

rate of change of displacement

New cards
2

Acceleration -

rate of change of velocity

New cards
3

Newton's First Law -

An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

New cards
4

Newton's Second Law -

Force equals mass times acceleration

New cards
5

Newton's Third Law -

Every action has an equal and opposite reaction

New cards
6

Elastic collision -

momentum and kinetic energy are conserved

New cards
7

Inellastic collision -

a collision in which only momentum is conserved

New cards
8

Centre of gravity -

The point where the entire weight of an object appears to act.

New cards
9

Torque of a couple -

The force multiplied by the perpendicular distance between the forces

New cards
10

principle of moments -

The sum of the clockwise moments is equal to the sum of the anticlockwise moments of a body in equilibrium.

New cards
11

capacitance -

the amount of charge stored per unit of P.D

New cards
12

electrical potential -

work done moving unit positive charge from infinity to the point

New cards
13

electrical field strength -

Force per unit positive charge

New cards
14

Doppler effect -

An observed change in the frequency of a wave when the source or observer is moving

New cards
15

spontaneous decay -

Decay is not affected by environmental factors

New cards
16

Random Decay -

cannot tell which nucleus will decay next; cannot state at what time a nucleus will decay;

New cards
17

Diffraction of a wave -

When a wave incident to a slit bends

New cards
18

Electric field -

a region of space where a charge will experience a force

New cards
19

Isotope -

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

New cards
20

Luminosity -

The total power emitted by a star.

New cards
21

luminous flux -

the rate at which light is emitted from a source

New cards
22

Hubble's Law -

The observation that the farther away a galaxy is, the faster it is moving away.

New cards
23

Momentum -

The product of an object's mass and velocity

New cards
24

principle of moments -

The sum of the clockwise moments is equal to the sum of the anticlockwise moments.

New cards
25

angular displacement -

the angle turned through in circular motion

New cards
26

angular velocity -

rate of change of angular displacement

New cards
27

centripetal acceleration -

the acceleration of an object moving in a circle, directed toward the centre

New cards
28

centripetal force -

the resultant force towards the centre of a circle acting on an object moving in a circular path

New cards
29

Accuracy -

A description of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity measured.

New cards
30

Precision -

a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another

New cards
31

conservation of momentum -

Momentum of a system remains constant when there are no net external forces acting on it.

New cards
32

terminal velocity -

the constant velocity of a falling object when the force of air resistance is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of gravity

New cards
33

centre of gravity -

The point where the entire weight of an object appears to act.

New cards
34

centre of mass -

The point through which a single force on the body has no turning effect

New cards
35

couple -

Two equal and opposite parallel forces that act on an object through different lines of action. It has the effect of causing a rotation without translation.

New cards
36

conservation of energy -

Energy cannot be created or destroyed only transferred from one form to another

New cards
37

efficiency -

The percentage of the input work that is converted to output work

New cards
38

gravitational potential energy -

Energy stored by objects due to their position above Earth's surface.

New cards
39

kinetic energy -

the energy an object has due to its motion

New cards
40

Power -

the rate at which work is done

New cards
41

work done -

force x distance

New cards
42

Compressive deformation -

A change in the shape of an object due to compressive forces

New cards
43

elastic deformation -

region where the material will return to its original shape when the stress is removed

New cards
44

plastic deformation -

permanent deformation caused by strain when stress exceeds a certain value

New cards
45

elastic limit -

Maximum stress that a material will withstand without permanent deformation.

New cards
46

elastic potential energy -

the potential energy of an object that is stretched or compressed

New cards
47

Hooke's Law -

Extension is directly proportional to force until the spring reaches it's elastic limit

New cards
48

Limit of proportionality -

The limit beyond which, when a wire or spring is stretched, its extension is no longer proportional to the force that stretches it.

New cards
49

spring constant -

a constant that represents the relationship between the force exerted by a spring and its change in length. Higher spring constantx

New cards
50

strain -

ratio of an objects extension to its original length

New cards
51

stress -

force acting per unit area

New cards
52

tensile strength -

the resistance of a material to breaking under tension

New cards
53

Tensile strain -

The extension per unit length

New cards
54

tensile stress -

The force per unit cross-sectional area, measured in Pa

New cards
55

Young's Modulus -

A measure of the stiffness of an elastic material and defined by stress/strain.

New cards
56

Amplitude -

the height of a wave from the origin to the crest

New cards
57

electromagnetic spectrum -

Gamma, X-ray, UV, Visible, Infrared, Micro, Radio

New cards
58

Intensity -

The amount of energy per second carried through a unit area by a wave.

New cards
59

Phase Difference (SHM) - .

Difference in position in cycle of two points expressed as an angle

New cards
60

longitudinal wave -

A wave in which the vibration of the medium is parallel to the direction the wave travels

New cards
61

Transverse wave -

A wave that moves the medium in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels

New cards
62

Polarisation -

The restriction of a wave so that it can only oscillate in a single plane. This can only occur for transverse waves.

New cards
63

Progressive wave -

A wave that transfers energy without transferring matter

New cards
64

Antinode -

A point of maximum amplitude on a standing wave

New cards
65

coherence -

Waves with the same frequency and constant phase difference.

New cards
66

constructive interference -

The interference that occurs when two waves combine to make a wave with a larger amplitude

New cards
67

destructive interference -

The interference that occurs when two waves combine to make a wave with a smaller amplitude

New cards
68

Diffraction -

Occurs when an object causes a wave to change direction and bend around it

New cards
69

diffraction grating -

a device made of thousands of closely spaced slits through which light is passed in order to produce a spectrum

New cards
70

interference -

Superposition of two progressive waves from coherent sources to produce a resultant wave with a displacement equal to the sum of the individual displacements from the two waves

New cards
71

Nodes -

The point of minimum displacement in a stationary wave

New cards
72

superposition principle -

when two or more waves overlap, the resulting wave is the sum of the individual waves

New cards
73

Two source interference -

When the waves from two sources interfere to produce a pattern

New cards
74

charge -

the property of a particle that causes it to experience a force in an electromagnetic field

New cards
75

current -

The rate of flow of charge

New cards
76

Light dependent resistor -

Resistor which is designed to have a resistance that changes with light intensity

New cards
77

Ohmic conductor -

A conductor for which the current flow is directly proportional to the potential difference across it, when under constant physical conditions.

New cards
78

potential difference -

the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts

New cards
79

Power (circuit) -

rate of energy transfer

New cards
80

resistance -

a measure of how difficult it is for current to flow through a material

New cards
81

Resistivity -

a measure of the resisting power of a specified material to the flow of an electric current.

New cards
82

thermistor - A resistor that changes its resistance with a change of temperature.

A resistor that changes its resistance with a change of temperature.

New cards
83

Volt -

unit of potential difference

New cards
84

conservation of charge -

the principle that net electric charge is neither created nor destroyed but is transferable from one material to another

New cards
85

electromotive force (emf) -

The energy supplied by a source per unit charge passing through the source, measured in volts.

New cards
86

Internal resistance -

resistance inside the source of electrical energy - loss of PD per unit current in the source when current passes through it

New cards
87

Kirchoff's first law (current) -

The sum of the currents entering any junction is always equal to the sum of the currents leaving the junction (a form of conservation of charge).

New cards
88

Kirchoff's Second Law -

The sum of the e.m.f.s is equal to the sum of the p.d.s in a closed loop (a form of conservation of energy).

New cards
89

potential divider -

two or more resistors in series connected to a source of pd

New cards
90

Alpha Particle -

2 protons 2 newtrons highly ionising lowly penetrating

New cards
91

atomic mass unit (amu) -

one twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom

New cards
92

Beta particle -

A fast-moving electron that is given off as nuclear radiation. medium ionising, medium penetrating

New cards
93

Beta minus decay -

The process of a neutron inside a nucleus turning into a proton, and emitting a beta-minus particle (an electron) and a antineutrino.

New cards
94

Beta plus decay -

The process of a proton inside a nucleus turning into a neutron, and emitting a beta-plus particle (a positron) and a neutrino.

New cards
95

Electron -

a negatively charged subatomic particle

New cards
96

Particles that are affected by strong nuclear force, and contain quarks

New cards
97

Leptons -

A group of elementary subatomic particles, consisting of electrons, muons and neutrinos.

New cards
98

Meson -

A hadron consisting of a quark and an antiquark

New cards
99

Positron -

a particle with the mass of an electron but a positive charge

New cards
100

Quark -

particles of matter that make up protons and neutrons

New cards

Explore top notes

Note
Studied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Note
Studied by 38 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
Note
Studied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Note
Studied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
Note
Studied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Note
Studied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Note
Studied by 59 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
Note
Studied by 61 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

Flashcard30 terms
Studied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
Flashcard23 terms
Studied by 48 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Flashcard59 terms
Studied by 97 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Flashcard73 terms
Studied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
Flashcard20 terms
Studied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Flashcard37 terms
Studied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Flashcard26 terms
Studied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Flashcard501 terms
Studied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)