Mendelian Genetics

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simple genetics

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Biology

10th

46 Terms

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simple genetics

what is Mendelian genetics also known as?

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Gregor Mendel

-austrian monk -father of genetics

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Characteristic or Trait

the physical features that are inherited. They can occur in different versions.

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characteristic, trait, version, trait

Face color is _________ or _____. White or not white is the _______ of the ____.

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hybrid

offspring from a cross of parents with different or contrasting traits

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Generation

a group of offspring from a given group of parents

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Genetics

the study of heredity

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Genetic cross

mating or breeding of two individual organisms

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Self pollinate

fertilize itself

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Cross pollinate

pollen of one plant is carried to the flower of another plant

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monohybrid cross

a cross studying one pair of contrasting forms of a trait

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True-breeding

plants or organisms that always produce the same type of offspring. Also called Pure bred.

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Mendel’s explanations for the patterns of heredity in garden pea plants.

Modern genetics is based on

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People thought that traits were blends from parents.

Before Mendel what did people believe about how we inherited traits?

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-They have seven traits with two contrasting forms for each trait -They usually self pollinate -Grow easily

Why did Mendel choose pea plants to study?

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Mendel allowed true-breeding plants for each trait to self fertilize and called these true or pure bred plants the parental or P generation.

Mendel’s First Experiments step 1:

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parental or p generation

the first set of parents crossed

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He then crossed two true breeding plants of the same character but with different forms of the trait.

Mendel’s First Experiments step 2:

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first filial or F1 generation

the generation of hybrids produced from a cross between the genetically different individuals called parents

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He then allowed the F1 generation to self fertilize and produce new plants. He called the offspring from this cross the second filial or F2 generation.

Mendel’s First Experiments step 3:

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alleles

different versions of genes

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dominant

the expressed allele( what showed up in the F1

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recessive

the hidden allele(didn’t show up in the F1)

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genotype

a specific combination of alleles in an individual.(the actual genetic makeup)

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phenotype

the detectable trait or traits that result from the genotype of an individual(the observable form of the trait

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The simple pattern of inheritance. In these patterns, two of several versions of a gene combine and result in one of several possible traits.

what does Mendelian theory explain

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Mendel called the version that showed up the ________ trait and the one that was hidden the _________ trait

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Law of dominance

that the dominant allele is the one that showed up in the F1 generation

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Law of independent assortment

during gamete formation the alleles of each gene segregate independently.

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phenotype

The physical trait or the observable form of the trait

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genotypes

are the genes that code for these traits

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capital, lower case

We use a ______ letter to represent the dominant gene and a ________ letter to represent the recessive gene

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pure bred

said to be Homozygous for the trait.

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hybrid

said to be Heterozygous for the trait.

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homozygous

an individual that carries two identical alleles of a gene

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heterozygous

individual that carries two different alleles of a gene

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gene

unit of heredity; part of the DNA that codes for a particular protein

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Dihybrid crosses

When you cross two traits at a time

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Incomplete Dominance

The heterozygote shows an inbetween or blend of the two homozygous phenotypes Red x white = pink Black x white= gray Long x short =medium

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Co dominance

the heterozygote shows both homozygous phenotypes. Red x white= red/white

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Phenotypes: Genotypes: Type A IA IA or IA iType B IB IB or IB i Type O ii Type AB IA IB

human blood type

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type AB

blood is an example of codominance

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multiple alleles

Human blood type shows

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mutiple alleles

More than the normal two alleles for a trait

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2

Each organism can only have _____ of the alleles for that trait to be expressed

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polygenic traits

Traits that have more than one pair of genes involved in their expression -hair color -eye color -skin color

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