Unit two Joyner KNOWT

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The Pennsylvania vibe

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Will most likely cover all the multiple choice, guarantee on essay questions

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The Pennsylvania vibe

  • 1681

  • given to cover the monarchial debt to William Penn’s father

  • Quaker’s haven

  • fostered good relations with the Lenape/Delaware natives by “purchasing” (more like paying them because they will be there regardless) land from them

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WIlliam Penn

  • The founder of Pennsylvania

  • Emerged as a Quaker leader in England after he was jailed multiple times for speaking out against the English Crown and the Anglican Church.

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What is a Quaker?

  • Support religious freedom

  • Persecuted in England

  • Pacifists

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Why were the Quaker's persecuted in England?

For not practicing the state religion (Anglican Protestantism) and for challenging the Anglican Church by promoting religious tolerance.

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Why didn't they execute Penn?

Penn's father was a well-respected, well-connected, wealthy admiral in the Navy who once personally financed a fleet of ships for England during war. This made the English monarchy indebted to Penn's bloodline.

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How do the Quaker's beliefs affect the evolution of their society?

1) The Quakers will not discriminate against any peoples that settle in their colony. Meaning their population will have the diversity of many European groups: Germans, Dutch, Swedes, English, Irish, Welsh, Scottish, etc.

2) The Quakers will extend the olive branch to the Native Americans (Lenape) in the area. They will establish peaceful coexistence with the Lenape and financially compensate the Lenape for the land they occupy.

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What is so important about Philadelphia?

  • A very accepting place relative to the other colonies (they accept most everyone except slaves)

  • Commercial center because it is tied to the water

  • flexible social structure

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What is “the best poor man’s country”?

  • Philidelphia

  • there is always a place for anyone (even dirt-poor farmers because they had a better standard of living here than any where else)

  • not really a plantation-based economy

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___________ was claimed by Sweden and the Netherlands before it found a life partner in England.

^Delaware

and (surprisingly)

^New Jersey

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What are the differences and similarities between Delaware and New Jersey?* (possible essay)

DELAWARE SPECIFIC:

- In terms of the English, New York took control first, followed by Pennsylvania.

- Became an independent state in 1776.

NEW JERSEY SPECIFIC:

- Dutch, who fled after the Duke of York took New Netherland, tried to turn New Jersey into a new Dutch stronghold. It failed and they succumbed to the English.

- Was considered a part of New York until 1736, when it broke off and became its own colony with a legislative body and governor.

BOTH (HOT POTATOES):

- Were the afterthoughts of the New World. Simply bargaining chips between colonies controlling the surrounding territories.

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New York (the state and city) = ?

Used to be New Netherland (state) and New Amsterdam (city center).

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Henry Hudson = ?

Hired by the Dutch to scout the N.E. Seaboard. for the perfect spot to establish an American foothold for the Dutch.

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In ____, Hudson determines modern-day New York is the best real estate for the Netherlands to colonize. In ____, the Dutch make their formal claim to New Netherland.

^1609

^1623

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From the start, it was understood that New __________ would be the epicenter that facilitates the ___ trade for what?

^Amsterdam

^Fur

^Dutch West Indies Company

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How did New Netherland operate in its prime?

  • The Netherlands granted monopolistic rights to the Dutch (to eliminate any competition to the Dutch West Indies Company)

  • Huntsmen who captured and skinned animals were given a flat rate.

  • Pelts were taken and marked up for retail sale across the ocean.

  • There was an emerging urban environment with smaller farms on the outskirts

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What was the main issue New Netherland encountered?

It was sandwiched between two English colonies. English settlers began pouring in and diluting the Dutch culture.

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Peter Stuyvesant = ?

  • Director (basically governor) who tried to salvage Dutch culture in New Netherland.

  • Was an angry old man who didn't get along well with others.

  • Believed that the settlers needed to be reminded that New Netherland was DUTCH and had only one company allowed to succeed.

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1664 Anglo-Dutch War = ?

The Duke of York sent a fleet of ships to surround New Amsterdam and asserted a claim to all of New Netherland.

Stuyvesant tried to rally a militia, but his past tyrades made the people standoffish with leadership so no one was stirred.

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Why did the English want New Netherland?

They wanted complete control of the Eastern Seaboard, but the trade epicenter with deep water ports was a nice perk. (When in doubt think big money and big power)

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Slavery wasn't ________ in Pennsylvania and New York, but ____________ agriculture wasn't as emphasized as it was in the south. So, slavery wasn't the dominant labor force. Slaves here were given _______ _______________ after the American Revolution.

^Illegal

^Plantation

^Gradual Empancipation

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What were the two main French territory claims in the New World?

  • Louisiana (est. 1682) which included territory along the Mississippi River.

  • New France (est. 1534; same time as Quebec) located along the Great Lakes.

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Based on _____ _____ alone, France should've been a __________ colonial force in North America. This was _____________.

^Land Mass

^Dominant

^Misleading

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How were the French territories different from English and Spanish territories?* (another possible essay)

France's #1 focus was making money from the fur trade.

- There were no cities or towns, just trade outposts with monarch-appointed officials and no local government.

- In 1750, France only had 60,000 colonists as opposed to the millions of English and Spanish. People were there to trap and trade, not start families.

- There was no impulse, unlike with the English, to turn the wilderness into European society 2.0

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The French established _____ relations with _______ groups, not to suggest all interactions were ____________.

^Good

^Native

^Peaceful

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France wasn't a big factor in the _____________ to control American territory until __________ couldn't expand ___________ anymore.

^Competition

^England

^Westward

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Vibe of the Ohio Country (summary) and why was it significant to the French Indian war?

  • Territory: Large land, mostly empty aside from the natives

  • Had good river junctions for trade that everyone wanted

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“Forks of the river”

Where the trade routes/rivers meet

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Who was the Half-king?

  • A native chief who was willing to negotiate/talk with the British

  • Encouraged/Needed English goods for survival

  • Called the “half-king” because his authority was limited by the Iroquois league

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What is the Iroquois league?

A group of native tribes under one chief (similar to the Powhatan confederacy)

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General George Washington (French-Indian War time)= ?

  • At this time he was not a well-known military official

  • He was trying to build a name and reputation for himself other than VA farmer boy

  • Started out with a pretty bad reputation after a big loss in several forts

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What was the The Fort Le Boeuf Mission (1753)?

Essentially the British sent Washington to the French Fort Le Boeuf to ward them off from taking “future british land” in reference to Ohio. They basically were like “Ha-no.”

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What happened in The Skirmish in “Jumonville Glen” (1754)?

  • Washington, a small group of soldiers, and some native allies from the “half-king” wrongfully ambushed French diplomats thinking they were scouts

  • that quickly turned into a massacre

  • The clearing is named after “Jumonville Glen'“ who was mortally wounded before being scalped and having the half-king bathe in his brain blood

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What happened at Fort Necessity and what were its effects on Washington? How did the French fight?

  • The French ambush a British “fort” as revenge for the death of Jumonville Glen. Terrible fighting conditions (rain)

  • The French fought using native (‘cowardly”) style fighting, like hiding in the trees (not the dumb British way of fighting where you stand in an open field)

  • This led to Washington gaining infamy (the wrong kind of fame) and signing off on terms in French that was a confession to the assassination of Jumonville Glen

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Edward Braddock= ?

  • English military leader

  • first objective was to assault Fort Duquesne

  • Wanted the colonies to pay for this military expedition and shamed those who didn’t pay up

  • Didn’t want native allies to fight with him (said their fighting was “savage”)

  • Was very particular with his army

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What happened at The Fort Duquesne Expedition (1755)? What was the march there like?

  • March: illogical feat, 100 miles to the fort, lost some soldiers on the way because they got captured by French Native allies and got turned over, they were being scouted the whole time

  • A French general that donned Native war dress as a show of solidarity and respect fought the native way

  • Huge British loss because they were surrounded (British has 1,000+ wounded and dead, The French had 20)

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What were Braddock’s wrongs at The Fort Duquesne Expedition?

  • Alienated the colonial governments with his harsh '“pay up”s

  • didn’t enlist native allies

  • limited battle experience

  • flawed approach by marching/bringing in heavy artillery to a forest

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William Pitt= ?

  • British Prime minister

  • Prioritizes French-Indian war because the victory would keep the British in control of North America

  • Navally harassed French ships

  • Encouraged young officers to join the fight to go against old traditions and take risks (Note that they didn’t fully abandon traditional fighting style but they did change)

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What is rangering?

Basically a one man army. They are spies and can fight for themselves.

  • emerged during the French-Indian War

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Robert Rogers= ?

  • Successful British Ranger

  • Wrote a rangering manual (still used today)

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Poniac’s Rebellion

  • Pan-indian rebellion led by Otawa leader (great lakes region) against British Rule

  • Failed but showed that the natives would always resist

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Proclamation Line of 1763

Britain told the colonists that westward expansion was forbidden

  • Britain was too poor to fight back against anyone there

  • An effect of Poniac’s Rebellion

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The Ohio Company

  • Joint-Stock Company

  • Bought Ohio (land) from the British and sold it for profit

  • After the Proclamation Line, they weren’t allowed to do anything with their land

  • Angered the people in the Joint-Stock company and fueled future revolutionaries because they had a stake in the land

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First Great Awakening *** POSSIBLE ESSAY WARNING

  • Protestant Religious revival (1730’s-1740’s)

  • Getting back in touch with the Protestant faction of Christianity/God

  • Stemmed from the growing disappointment with the power of the Church over the individual’s relationship with God

  • Led to the rise of Evangelicalism

  • One of the things that began to fuel the Revolution

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What is Evangelicalism?

Focuses on personal/individual’s relationship with Christ

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Johnathan Edwards= ?

  • “Rockstar” Preacher

  • Preached for people to return truly to God (First Great Awakening)

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George Whitefield= ?

  • “Rockstar” Preacher

  • Preached for people to return truly to God (First Great Awakening)

  • Preaches to a Black (enslaved or freed) audience as well as a white audience

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What is The Enlightenment?

  • Intellectual and scientific movement

  • “Reason over revelation”

  • Secularism

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What is Social Contract Theory?

The theoretical agreement between the government and the governed (ex. I am the monarch and you are my subject, you listen to me)

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John Locke and his beliefs= ?

  • Man has basic God-given rights that he is born with

  • Life: The right to exist, people who take this away are to be punished

  • Liberty: The right to freedom and decision-making (ironic for slave owners to believe in)

  • Estate: The right to property, physical body, the fruit of labor (money)

  • Says that the government is REQUIRED to listen to these, an infringement on these means the social contract can and should be broken

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What are Navigation Acts? (1650’s)

  • Goal was to refocus British attention on the colonies

  • Enacted monopolistic control over the colonies (money goes to the British crown)

  • Ex. Colonies can only trade with England or incur a hefty fee, no individualistic prospering

  • Began being heavily enforced in the 1750’s

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George Grenville= ?

  • British Prime Minister

  • Wanted to enforce the Navigation Acts

  • Endorsed direct taxes on popular items (for the colonies)

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Sugar Act (1764)

Enforced on sugar for quick money (for Britain)

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Stamp Act (1765)

A paper tax that requires a legal stamp for legal paper use

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“No taxation without representation”

  • Originated by James Otis

  • The thing that the colonists are the most mad about

  • Feel more like subjects and not really people to the British

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Stamp Act Congress

  • Nine colonies sent 3 representatives each to discuss a response to the taxes

  • Came to a formal response: A strongly worded letter to the King and Parliament about needing to be represented in the Government taxing them in order to be fairly taxed, will boycott the taxed goods until their demands are met

  • Informal response: If England doesn’t listen they will use violent protests and intimidation tactics

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Non-importation

Boycotting (in this context this is the boycotting of British goods)

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Samuel Adams= ?

  • The founder of the Sons of Liberty

  • Big-time revolutionary

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The Sons of Liberty

  • A revolutionary group founded by Samuel Adams

  • Originated in Boston before spreading to other places

  • Used violent protests and intimidation tactics to scare the British into listening and to keep the other colonists in line with the boycotts (basically terrorism/hate crimes)

  • Got Acts revoked due to their action

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Effigy

To murder/harm a look-alike as a threat to someone

  • EX. hanging a scarecrow from a tree with some British enforcer’s name on it

  • A tactic used by the Sons of Liberty

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Townshend Duties (1767)

  • Created by Charles Townshend (new British Prime minister)

  • Placed tariffs on imports (glass, led, paper, paint, tea)

  • This was a loop hole on taxing things because this was sort of an indirect tax

  • Hidden from the consumer because they only see the raised price but no taxes outright

  • The colonists hated this

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Tariffs

taxes on imported goods

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Boston ‘Massacre’ (1770)

  • The set-up: British sent troops to Boston because that was the founding place of the Sons of Liberty, the tensions ran high because soldiers are scary and have many connotations to them

  • March 5th: A group of colonists heckles British soldiers (using snow, rocks, ice, and oyster shells), the group grows with more people adding in, and the soldiers begin firing at the crowd and kill 5

  • The aftermath: The soldiers are tried in the colonies (with John Adams, a dedicated patriot, as their attorney). They are painted as evil murderers who fought unprovokedly.

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Paul Revere’s cartoon

Depicted the British soldiers as unprovoked murders and the colonists as innocent people who died unjustly

  • this was the main way the news of the Boston ‘Massacre’ and helped add fuel to the revolution

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Committees of Correspondence, inspection, and safety

  • Correspondence: A network of inter-colony communication

  • Inspection: Made sure people were participating in non-importation, forcibly

  • Safety: Organized militia for the revolution

    loyalist areas didn’t have these

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Boston Tea Party (1773)

  • The British kept the tea tax as a way to assert some control over the colonies

  • The Sons of Liberty dress as natives (for plausible deniability) and dump a huge tea import into the Boston port water

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Intolerable Acts

Four acts in response to The Boston Tea Party, would only be repealed if the money for the tea import was paid back in its entirety

  • Boston Port Act: Shut down the Boston Port completely

  • Massachusetts Government Act: Placed Boston under martial law (military rule)

  • Quartering Act: Allows British soldiers to stay anywhere with no repercussions, the owner of that place was required to take care of them

  • Administration of Justice Act: If any British Soldiers are accused of anything by colonists their trials would be held in England

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FIrst Continental Congress (1774)

  • Colonies sent representatives to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts

  • Formal Response: Another strongly-worded letter of their demands'

  • Informal Response: Mobilizing militia

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Patrick Henry= ?

Gave the famous '“give me liberty or give me death speech” in Virginia about fully investing in and supporting the revolution

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The Battle of Lexington-Concord (April 1775)

  • A British military general heard about the mobilization of colonial militias and sent troops to take them down

  • intercepted early by the rag-tag colonial militia at Lexington on while on their war to Concord

  • the British were pummelled, Patriot W

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“The Shot Heard Around The World”

The first shot that started The Battle of Lexington-Concord, no one knows who fired it

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Patriots

Agreed with and supported the colonies fight for independence

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Loyalists

Agreed with and supported the British, not actual soldiers

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Hessians

German mercenaries hired by the British

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Redcoats

Actual British soldiers

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Advantages for the colonists

  • Motivated for a cause bigger than themselves

  • know the terrain better

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Advantages for The British

  • Better military

  • more experience as a nation

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War of Attrition

A war fought until the bitter end, the goal is to outlast the enemy

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Second Continental Congress

Prepares for and organizes the war

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The Continental Army

  • Consisted of soldiers from all over the colonies

  • Presents as a unified front to fight for a unified cause

  • Poor starting performance

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General George Washington (revolution arc)= ?

  • Was chosen to lead the Continental army despite his previous poor reputation

  • native-born colonist

  • would help encourage revolutionary support in southern areas (like Virginia)

  • Really motivated and wanted the job

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Common Sense (Thomas Paine)

A pamphlet that swayed public opinion in favor of the revolution

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The Declaration of Independence (July, 1776)

  • A long list of British abuses and complaints

  • A reiteration of ‘Common Sense

  • No going back from declaring independence, now they have to fight for it

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The Battle of Trenton (1776)

A military turning point in favor of the colonists

  • Happened during the winter (one day after Christmas)

  • surprise attacked a Hessian base

  • a big win to encourage re-enlistment

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The Battle of Saratoga (1777)

  • Happened in New York

  • Some force of the Continental Army was camped there under Horatio Gates

  • British wanted to launch a ‘three-pronged’ attack led by Burgoyne, St. Leger, and Howe

  • Never materialized because Howe wanted to symbolically capture Philidelphia (succeded) and St. Leger got delayed and never went

  • Gates wanted to wait for Burgoyne’s army to come to him, Benedict Arnold disagreed and claimed that would put them at a disadvantage because reinforcements would come

  • Arnold gets kicked out of battle, ignores that and leads a charge against Burgoyne’s forces

  • Huge Patriot W, the biggest in the whole war

  • Encouraged the French to support the revolution

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Benedict Arnold’s Betrayal

  • After he wasn’t given credit for the win at Saratoga he was bitter, he was also assigned to desk duty for disobeying

  • Fell in love with a loyalist named Peggy Shippen and married her

  • Shippen convinces him to help and join the British by giving a man named John Andre (Shippen’s Ex) fort plans and the Continental Army schedule

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Benjamin Franklin

A colonial diplomat and huge patriot who worked to encourage the French to support the revolution

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French Support for the Revolution

It came in the form of guns and navy

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The Winter at Valley Forge (1777-1778)

After Howe captures Philadelphia the Continental Army is forced to make a poor ‘encampment’ at Valley Forge. There was a scarcity of everything and it was one of the coldest winters yet

  • Believed to be a source of inspiration to continue fighting this war because ‘it can’t get much worse than this’

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The Battle Monmouth (1778)

An attack executed on a large British force that was exiting Philadelphia, Patriot W

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The Southern Strategy

  • British re-focus on Loyalist-leaning southern colonies

  • liberated slaves to economically pressure the colonies into a peaceful submission

  • slaves were only free as long as they served in the British army with the promise of full freedom after they win (mostly assigned to manual labor)

  • Patriot L

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Lord Cornwallis= ?

British chief commander for the Southern Strategy

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Banastre Tarleton= ?

  • Big British military leader

  • Given the title ‘the butcher’ because he killed so much

  • Cavalry leader

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Nathaniel Green and Daniel Morgan= ?

  • Enlisted by Washington to combat the Southern Strategy

  • Green was the strategist

  • Morgan had a focus on unconventional warfare

  • Occasionally engaged with the British using ‘hit-and-run’ tactics to force them away from the ports and into the interior

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Yorktown (terrain)

Deep water port great for supplies and retreats

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General Rochambeau= ?

French general who was against Washington’s plan to capture New York and suggested Yorktown instead

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Admiral Degrasse= ?

French admiral that was in charge of the naval force in the Chesapeake bay to prevent a British retreat

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Siege of Yorktown (1781)

  • Washington discreetly moves troops south to Yorktown using faulty letters and a skeleton force

  • Bombed and overtook the British to force a surrender

  • Wasn’t the official documented end to the war but there wasn’t much fighting after this

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Treaty of Paris (1783)

  • Great Britain recognized America’s independence

  • Great Britain gets to keep Canada

  • Spain keeps Lousiana because of their financial support of the colonies

  • Aimed to protect remaining loyalists at least at the legal level (prosecuted anyway)

  • Individuals still owe their debts to British merchants

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