POLISCI FINAL EXAM REVIEW

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socialization

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socialization

process by which individuals acquire political beliefs and attitudes

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opinions/attitudes ideologies partisanship

how does socialization occur?

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media, political opinions/beliefs, religious institutions, school/education, and family

what are examples of agents of socialization

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certain religions, races, genders, income, education, geographic regions

who usually gets socialized?

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partisanship

party affiliation can act a similar fashion to guide peoples opinions

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ideologies

greatly influence peoples opinions on particular issues

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states

who determines voting rules and regulations?

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post civil war south

when did a majority of voting restrictions occur?

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poll tax

a tax that had to be paid before a person was allowed to vote

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literacy test

test for african americans to prevent them from voting

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Grandfather clause

allowed poor, illiterate white men to get around the literacy and understanding test, had to have a grandfather who was eligible to vote before the civil war

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white primary only

restricted voting in democratic primaries to white voters only

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24th amendment

eliminated poll tax

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voting rights act of 1965

eliminated all discriminatory practices disenfranchising black voters

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26th amendment

everyone 18 years and older can vote and this was when we achieved universal suffrage

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15th amendment

no discrimination in voting on account of race

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19th amendment

no discrimination in voting on account of sex

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socioeconomic factors, demographic characteristics, psychological characters, legal/institutional considerations, and regional voter theory

what are reasons people wont vote?

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regional voter theory

cost of voting outweighs benefits

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partisanship

why people vote the way they do, has to do with ideological beliefs as well as mental cues

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mental cues/cognitive shortcuts

for voters who don't have the opportunity or desire to gain greater knowledge of candidates and issues

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Race,gender,income →party ID→voter choice

channel of voter choice

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race, gender, geographic region, religion, religiosity, and income/wealth/social

things that have to do with partisanship

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elections

mechanism of carrying out democracy and the public will

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states

who sets procedures for congressional elections

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congress

who cannot alter the procedures for congressional elections

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the electoral college

who chooses the president

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electoral college

voting for a state of electors for one party/candidate or the other

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primary election

choose candidates for major parties

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general election

choose who wins public office

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plurality

most number of votes

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majority

50% + 1 vote

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runoff election

choose between top two vote receivers in general/primary election

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special election

choose who wins public office

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1872 appointment act

congress mandates that this day also be used for congressional elections

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polling place

where people cast their vote

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paper ballot

usually fill in the bubble ballot that gets read by scanner

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electronic voting machines

records votes electronically and instantly

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australian secret ballot/massachusetts ballot

used today to secure privacy of who you are voting for

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geographic representation

best way to show americans votes. They do this through redrawing state lines and having a census every 10 years

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Wesberry vs Sanders(1964)

one person’s vote should be equal to any others when letting representatives // one person = one vote

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single member district

one representative per geographic area

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gerrymandering

manipulating district boundaries for a specific purpose usually to the advantage of a particular candidate or party

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gerrymandering

not illegal but frowned upon

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racial gerrymandering

majority-minority districts to try and increase minority representation in congress

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shaw vs reno

ruled that we need minority representation but you cannot redistrict solely based on race because it is unconstitutional

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electoral campaign

introduce candidate, get message across, and motivate the voters

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create message that appeals to voters and must be simple and easily understood

what does a campaign speech need to do

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stump speech

main points of candidates message and easily remembered by citizens

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simplicity, repetition, exaggeration, and symbolism

main components of a campaign

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parties

what did the founding fathers not want

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major cleavage examples

broad government vs small government rural/agricultural interests liberalizing tendencies vs conservative tendencies

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Federalist

john adams, strong government and commercial interest

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Anti Federalist/jeffersonian republicans

thomas jefferson, states rights and agricultural interests

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Democratic party

follows in jefferson’s common man footsteps

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Whig party

formed in 1834, anti jacksonian “tyrannical power accumulation

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Conservative southern democrats

did not want federal government intrusion on race issues - “solid south”

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Republicans

favored government promoting business and economic growth and usually had protestant moral values including temperance

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northern democrats

tolerant to immigrants and non-protestants and more concerned with urban issues

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Populist

grew out of the democratic party- agrarian party

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Progressive

concerned with lots of social and political reform

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New deal

economic policy influences american politics and economics to present day

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Party realignment

major constituencies shit party allegiance, creating long term change

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Modern party era

another realignment that meant republicans used southern strategy to draw conservative, white southern voters

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Two party system

two major parties dominate at any particular times

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Reform parties

reform some aspect of politics

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Single-issue parties

entire platform is structured around one issue

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Ideological parties

typically the fringe of american ideologies

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Progressive parties

civil service reforms, primary elections, initiatives and referenda, and australian ballot

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Dealignment

decline in party loyalties reducing long-term party commitment

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Party polarization

party platforms becoming more ideologically polarized

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interest groups

an organized membership and pursuit of shared policy interest

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Theory of collective action

logical for people not to join interest groups

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Insider lobbying

most common and effective method of action for interest groups

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Iron triangle of inside lobbying

interest groups, congress and bureaucrats form a network of info and support and makes it difficult for other voices to be heard in the policy building process

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Issue networks

less structures and more inclusive in helping shape policy

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Grassroots lobbying/astroturf lobbying

encouraging group members to contact legislators

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Litigation

some groups and organizations litigate legal challenges on behalf of supporters and may file amicus curiae briefs

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Amicus curiae

briefs on behalf of supporters or in support of issues that can guide legal decisions by giving their interpretations of law

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size and resources, leadership, and cohesiveness

Three main factors of interest groups

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media

wide variety of sources which perform a wide variety of functions

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press

organizations that are devoted to reporting the news item of the day

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Party-sponsored papers

mouthpieces for parties

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Yellow journalism

news was sensationalized or fabricated to aid public interest

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War with spain because the USS maine was sunk in havana harbor

What conflict was because of yellow journalism?

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Muckraking

journalism that exposes corruption or unfair practices

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Fairness doctrine

mandated equal time to candidate and political pundits from both political parties

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ideology and partisanship, age, gender, income, and political knowledge

News source influences

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2/3s

how many americans get their news from social media

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