Psychology midterm

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critical thinking

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critical thinking

examines assumptions, appraises the source, discerns hidden biases, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions

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Aristotle

knowledge comes from observation, it is not innate

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Descartes

mind distinct from the body, dualism

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Francis Bacon

experiment, experience, empiricism

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John Locke

mind at birth is a tabula rasa (blank slate) on which experience writes

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Empiricism

the idea that knowledge comes from experience, and that observation and experimentation enable scientific knowledge

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Wilhelm Wundt

established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany

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structuralism

Wundt and Titchener’s thought that used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind

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introspection

process of looking inward in an attempt to directly observe one’s own psychological processes

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Titchener

introduced structuralism to study elements of the mind, used introspection

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Darwin

natural selection of mental and physical traits, adaptive evolution, influenced William James

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William James

wrote Principles of Psychology, believed thinking was adaptive and helped in survival

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consciousness

helps to consider past, adjust to present, and plan future

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functionalism

explored how mental and behavioral processes function, how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

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behaviorism

study of observable behavior

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behaviorism view

view that psychology should be objective and study behavior without references to mental processes

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B.F. Skinner

leading behaviorist, rejected introspection and studied how consequences shaped behavior

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Freudian psychology

emphasized the ways our unconscious mind and childhood experiences affect our behavior and mental processes

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Sigmund Freud

personality theorist and therapist who focused on unconscious sexual conflicts and the mind’s defenses (psychoanalysis)

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humanistic

emphasized human growth potential, believed that people were essentially good and unique, often considered a third force in psychology and rejected both behaviorism and psychoanalytic psychology

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Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow

led the humanistic psychology study

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cognitive psychology

study of mental processes, such as when we perceive, learn, remember, think, communicate, and solve problems

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psychology

science of behavior and mental processes of humans and other animals

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cognitive neuroscience

interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with cognition (perception, thinking, memory, language)

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nature vs. nurture

longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors

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nature

innate or inborn

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nurture

experience or environment

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natural selection

the principle that inherited traits that better enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

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evolutionary psychology

the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection

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behavior genetics

the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior, twin studies provide evidence for the relative influence of nature and nurture

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culture

enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

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gender

socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female

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positive psychology

the scientific study of human flourishing with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive

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biopsychosocial approach

an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological and social cultural viewpoints

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cognitive approach

interpretations of situations and mental processes and how they impact behavior

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evolutionary perspective

natural selection of traits

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humanistic

personal growth and self-actualization

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behavioral psychology

the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning

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biological psychology

the scientific study of the links between biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes

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psychodynamic

branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders

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social-cultural psychology

the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking

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psychometrics

study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits

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basic research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

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applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems, real world application

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developmental psychology

studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan

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educational psychology

study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning

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personality psychology

study of individuals characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting

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social psychology

scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

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industrial-organizational psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

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human factors psychology

a field of psychology allied with I/O psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use

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counseling psychologists

assists people with problems in living and in achieving greater well-being

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clinical psychology

branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders (phd or psyd)

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psychiatry

medicine dealing with psychological disorders practiced by physicians who are licensed to provide medical as well as psychological therapy (md)

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community psychologists

studies how people react to their environment and how social institutions affect individuals and groups

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cognitive psychologists

study human thinking and may work in academia or corporate

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developmental psychologists

study our behavior changes as we age

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educational psychologists

research issues related to teaching or learning

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experimental psychologists

experiments to understand behaviors and mental processes

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psychometric/quantitative psychologists

use math/stats to create, administer, score and interpret tests….intelligence and/or personality

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social psychologists

study interactions with others and how groups impact us individually

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forensic psychologists

apply psychological principles to legal issues

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rehabilitation psychologists

help individuals who have lost function after an accident/illness

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school psychologists

assessment and intervention for children in educational settings

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sport psychologists

help to improve performance

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counseling psychologists

guide people toward healthier relationships, overcome anxiety and depression, cope with difficulties

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clinical psychologists

assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, administer and interpret psychological testing, therapy and counseling, may conduct research

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community psychologists

work together with larger groups and communities and focusing on crisis management

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hindsight bias

tendency to believe that we would have foreseen an outcome after learning what it was

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overconfidence

the tendency to think more than we do

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perceive order in random events

In trying to make sense of an unpredictable world, we are prone to perceive patterns; in other words, we ______________________

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hindsight bias, overconfidence, eagerness

___________, ___________, and our _________ to perceive patterns in random events, lead us to overestimate the weight of common sense thinking

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scientific inquiry

_________ can help us overcome such biases and shortcomings

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scientific method

a self-correcting process using observation and analysis to evaluate

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theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organize observations and predicts behaviors or events using observations to explain behavior

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hypothesis

a testable prediction often implied by a theory, predictions about a behavior that can be tested

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support our theory or lead us to revise or reject

Research will either ___________________

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operational definition

a carefully worded statement of exact procedures used in research study

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replication

repeat the experiment precisely, confirmation

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case study

descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

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examination of rare, large qualitative data, directions for further study

strength of case study

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can be misleading, isn’t generalizable, cause and effect can’t be determined

limitation of case study

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naturalistic observation

a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without control or manipulation

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subjects behave normally outside of a lab setting, data collection is unobtrusive

strengths of naturalistic observation

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independent variable can’t be isolated, cause and effect can’t be determined, observations are subjective

limitations of naturalistic observation

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surveys

descriptive technique for obtaining self reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of group

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able to take a quick pulse of people’s beliefs/behaviors/opinions, able to include many cases

strength of survey

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response bias, wording effects skew outcomes, acquiring a random sample is hard, cause and effect can’t be determined

limitation of survey

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representative sample

has the same distribution of population demographic qualities in it as the population as a whole

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random sample

sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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CED

applying basic descriptive statistical concepts, including interpreting and constructing graphs and calculating simple descriptive statistics

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illusory correlation

perceiving a relationship where none exists or perceiving a stronger than actual relationship

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regression to the mean

the tendency for extreme scores or events to fall back toward the mean

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random assignment

assigning the participants to the experimental or control group by chance, equalizes experiment groups

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confounding variable

a factor other than the factor being studied that might influence a study’s results

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descriptive

observe and record behavior, uses case studies, naturalistic observation, or surveys

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correlational

to detect naturally occurring relationship; to assess how well one variable predicts another, collects data on two or more variables; no manipulation- cannot specify cause and effect

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experimental

to explore cause and effect- manipulates one or more factors, uses random assignment, manipulates the independent variable, sometimes not feasible, results may not generalize to other contexts, not ethical to manipulate certain variables

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neuron

nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system

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cell body

cell’s life support center (soma), contains the nucleus

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dendrites

receives messages from other cells, bushy, branching extensions that receive and integrate messages, conducting impulses toward the cell body

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