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Sepoy Mutiny

  • 1857-1858

  • India

  • bloody uprising by native indian soldiers & civilians

  • name for indian native soldiers that worked for the british

  • british relied on them

  • used infield rifles?

    • used cow fat which offended indians

    • pork fat offended muslims

  • ask indians to go far away from home but had been promised they could stay close

  • took all of British East India's authority away, and replaced it with direct governing from the British, under Queen Victoria.

<ul><li><p>1857-1858</p></li><li><p>India</p></li><li><p>bloody uprising by native indian soldiers &amp; civilians</p></li><li><p>name for indian native soldiers that worked for the british</p></li><li><p>british relied on them</p></li><li><p>used infield rifles?</p><ul><li><p>used cow fat which offended indians</p></li><li><p>pork fat offended muslims</p></li></ul></li><li><p>ask indians to go far away from home but had been promised they could stay close</p></li><li><p>took all of British East India&apos;s authority away, and replaced it with direct governing from the British, under Queen Victoria.</p></li></ul>
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Queen Victoria

  • empress of India

  • opium addiction flourished during her reign

  • British

  • supported British merchants in their refusal to cooperate w/ Chinese prohibition

<ul><li><p>empress of India</p></li><li><p>opium addiction flourished during her reign</p></li><li><p>British</p></li><li><p>supported British merchants in their refusal to cooperate w/ Chinese prohibition</p></li></ul>
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Cecil Rhodes

  • confession of faith

    • imperialists faith in dominating the world

  • characerzed what hitler later blieved

  • british pollitician in south africa

  • prime minister of cape colony

<ul><li><p>confession of faith</p><ul><li><p>imperialists faith in dominating the world</p></li></ul></li><li><p>characerzed what hitler later blieved</p></li><li><p>british pollitician in south africa</p></li><li><p>prime minister of cape colony</p></li></ul>
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Albert Bierstadt

  • german american artist

  • presented American through european lense

  • introduced many Easterners to the grandeur of the American West for the first time.

<ul><li><p>german american artist</p></li><li><p>presented American through european lense</p></li><li><p>introduced many Easterners to the grandeur of the American West for the first time.</p></li></ul>
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Jean-Francois Millet

  • french

  • realist painter

  • paintings = political statements

  • founder of Barbizon school in rural france

<ul><li><p>french</p></li><li><p>realist painter</p></li><li><p>paintings = political statements</p></li><li><p>founder of Barbizon school in rural france</p></li></ul>
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Edouard Manet

  • Luncheon on the Grass (1863)

  • part of the first Salon des Refuses in 1863

  • work = scandal

    • women portrayed naked w/ 2 men

<ul><li><p>Luncheon on the Grass (1863)</p></li><li><p>part of the first Salon des Refuses in 1863</p></li><li><p>work = scandal</p><ul><li><p>women portrayed naked w/ 2 men</p></li></ul></li></ul>
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Richard Wagner

  • composer

  • Ride of the valkyries

  • romantic Movement

<ul><li><p>composer</p></li><li><p>Ride of the valkyries</p></li><li><p>romantic Movement</p></li></ul>
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Claude Monet

  • Impressionist movement came from name of Sunrise

  • helped found the Salon de Refuses

<ul><li><p>Impressionist movement came from name of Sunrise</p></li><li><p>helped found the Salon de Refuses</p></li></ul>
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Camille Pissarro

  • native of the virgin islands but came to France at age 12 for schooling

  • Boulevard Montermartre

  • Showing the modern city

<ul><li><p>native of the virgin islands but came to France at age 12 for schooling</p></li><li><p>Boulevard Montermartre</p></li><li><p>Showing the modern city</p></li></ul>
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Fin de siècle

  • end of century

  • usually 19th century

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Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

  • celebrated urban night life with posters

  • painted portrait of Vincent Van Gogh

<ul><li><p>celebrated urban night life with posters</p></li><li><p>painted portrait of Vincent Van Gogh</p></li></ul>
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Alexander II

  • r 1855-1881

  • More sympathetic to russia’s poor

  • Emancipated serfs

    • last country of serfs (old feudal system)

    • li,mited reform

      • still had to pay lord to cover labor

  • created regional elective councils

  • Opened schools

  • Assasinated by anarchists

  • crimean war ended under his reign

  • promotion made on merit

  • boost morale of country if they were going to go to wawr again

<ul><li><p>r 1855-1881</p></li><li><p>More sympathetic to russia’s poor</p></li><li><p>Emancipated serfs</p><ul><li><p>last country of serfs (old feudal system)</p></li><li><p>li,mited reform</p><ul><li><p>still had to pay lord to cover labor</p></li></ul></li></ul></li><li><p>created regional elective councils</p></li><li><p>Opened schools</p></li><li><p>Assasinated by anarchists</p></li><li><p>crimean war ended under his reign</p></li><li><p>promotion made on merit</p></li><li><p>boost morale of country if they were going to go to wawr again</p></li></ul>
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Russo-Japanese War

  • 1904-1905

  • rival ambitions in Manchuria & Korean Empire

  • Russia needed support

    • Triple entente created

<ul><li><p>1904-1905</p></li><li><p>rival ambitions in Manchuria &amp; Korean Empire</p></li><li><p>Russia needed support</p><ul><li><p>Triple entente created</p></li></ul></li></ul>
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Nicholas II

  • 1894-1917

  • tried liberal reforms

    • Duma

      • failed because of economic difficulties

  • last czar of russia

<ul><li><p>1894-1917</p></li><li><p>tried liberal reforms</p><ul><li><p>Duma</p><ul><li><p>failed because of economic difficulties</p></li></ul></li></ul></li><li><p>last czar of russia</p></li></ul>
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Bloody Sunday

  • industrial workers had rally

  • Father George

  • 100,000+ people

  • Russia 1905

  • St.Petersburg Ireland

  • was a massacre on 30 January 1972 when British soldiers shot 26 unarmed civilians during a protest march in the Bogside area of Derry, Northern Ireland.

  • an armed confrontation between local authorities and members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) union, commonly called "Wobblies".

<ul><li><p>industrial workers had rally</p></li><li><p>Father George</p></li><li><p>100,000+ people</p></li><li><p>Russia 1905</p></li><li><p>St.Petersburg Ireland</p></li><li><p>was a massacre on 30 January 1972 when British soldiers shot 26 unarmed civilians during a protest march in the Bogside area of Derry, Northern Ireland.</p></li><li><p>an armed confrontation between local authorities and members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) union, commonly called &quot;Wobblies&quot;.</p></li></ul>
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Spheres of influence

  • claim by a state to exclusive or predominant control over a foreign area or territory

<ul><li><p>claim by a state to exclusive or predominant control over a foreign area or territory</p></li></ul>
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“Open Door”

  • statement of principles

  • by U.S.

  • 1899-1900

  • protection of equal privileges for all countries trading with China and for support of Chinese territorial & administrative integrity

<ul><li><p>statement of principles</p></li><li><p>by U.S.</p></li><li><p>1899-1900</p></li><li><p>protection of equal privileges for all countries trading with China and for support of Chinese territorial &amp; administrative integrity</p></li></ul>
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Opium Wars

  • 1839-1942, 1856-1860

  • extraterritoriality introduced

    • european law was put in place in sphere of influence

  • Chinese king stopped opium import into china

  • everyone was high

  • thought to be a cure-all

  • europe wanted opium trade into china

  • went to war to stop this

  • British won

<ul><li><p>1839-1942, 1856-1860</p></li><li><p>extraterritoriality introduced</p><ul><li><p>european law was put in place in sphere of influence</p></li></ul></li><li><p>Chinese king stopped opium import into china</p></li><li><p>everyone was high</p></li><li><p>thought to be a cure-all</p></li><li><p>europe wanted opium trade into china</p></li><li><p>went to war to stop this</p></li><li><p>British won</p></li></ul>
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Boxer Rebellion (1900)

  • 1899-1891

  • Chines saw as another resistance to euro domination

  • Chinese nationalist

  • called themselves righteous order of harmonious fists

  • stronger Chinese gov

  • chinese law reign

  • demonstrations in Beijing

    • surround consulate anda embassy of Europe

  • some missionaries & diplomat fam suffered

  • people sent troops

    • us participated

      • wAS given thE open door

  • ended in 1912 and china became repiubklic

<ul><li><p>1899-1891</p></li><li><p>Chines saw as another resistance to euro domination</p></li><li><p>Chinese nationalist</p></li><li><p>called themselves righteous order of harmonious fists</p></li><li><p>stronger Chinese gov</p></li><li><p>chinese law reign</p></li><li><p>demonstrations in Beijing</p><ul><li><p>surround consulate anda embassy of Europe</p></li></ul></li><li><p>some missionaries &amp; diplomat fam suffered</p></li><li><p>people sent troops</p><ul><li><p>us participated</p><ul><li><p>wAS given thE open door</p></li><li><p></p></li></ul></li></ul></li><li><p>ended in 1912 and china became repiubklic</p></li></ul>
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“Young Turks”

  • reformists

  • largely army offices

  • compelled Abdul Hamid to concede a new Constitution in 1908

  • Internal dissent fell from power in 1911

<ul><li><p>reformists</p></li><li><p>largely army offices</p></li><li><p>compelled Abdul Hamid to concede a new Constitution in 1908</p></li><li><p>Internal dissent fell from power in 1911</p></li></ul>
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Balkan Wars

  • Turkey mobilizwd army against salvic state to get territory back

  • Turkey tried to take territroy in Blakin area

  • Turkey was driven out

  • 2nd

    • everyone fought against serbia

    • Turkey got its territory back

<ul><li><p>Turkey mobilizwd army against salvic state to get territory back</p></li><li><p>Turkey tried to take territroy in Blakin area</p></li><li><p>Turkey was driven out</p></li><li><p>2nd</p><ul><li><p>everyone fought against serbia</p></li><li><p>Turkey got its territory back</p></li></ul></li><li><p></p></li></ul>
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Crimean War

  • russia vs ottoman turkey, britain, france, piedmont-sardinina

  • known for florence nightingale nurse

  • battle for control of the black sea

  • one of the costliest

    • conflict started with who controlled orthodox church

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Boer War

  • Bloody war

  • made british unpopular

  • south africa

  • cotnrol of rodijia

  • desired territory was full of resources

  • boers= dutch farmers

  • dutch settlers were there way before

  • dutch duidnt want to live under british

  • boar republics

  • gold & diamonds were discovered so British weren’t getting rights to work in dutch colony

  • British said that they had to give them a piece of their land

  • British outnumbered dutch

  • dutch put in concentration camps

  • british were huge unpopular

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Friedrich Nietzsche

  • Thus spoke Zarathustra

    • Ubermensch

      • the ideal superior man of the future who could rise above conventional Christian morality to create and impose his own values,

    • eternal recurrence

  • God is dead

  • people must become their best self without relying on anything

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  • conflict between civil government and religious authorities especially over control of education and church appointments.

  • led by bismark

  • in reaction to ope syllabus of errors

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Emile Zola

  • novelist

  • painted by manet

  • practiced naturaloism

    • nature seen through a temperament

    • acknowledge people had opinion

  • all human beings are products of hereditary/ enviro factros which they have no control over

  • truths of light and shade, reality of obects and creatures

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Dreyfus Affair

  • political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906. L'Affaire Dreyfus has come to symbolise modern injustice in the Francophone world, and it remains one of the most notable examples of a complex miscarriage of justice and antisemitism.

  • At the end of 1894, French Army Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a graduate of the École Polytechnique, a Jew of Alsatian origin, was accused of handing secret documents to the Imperial German military. After a closed trial, he was found guilty of treason and sentenced to life imprisonment.

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  • art in which the image of reality is distorted in order to make it expressive of the artist's inner feelings or ideas.

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Edvard Munch

  • Norwegian painter. His best known work, The Scream, has become one of Western art's most iconic images. His childhood was overshadowed by illness, bereavement and the dread of inheriting a mental condition that ran in the family.

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a style or movement in painting originating in France in the 1860s, characterized by a concern with depicting the visual impression of the moment, especially in terms of the shifting effect of light and color.

-cladue monet

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was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty and especially feminine sensuality,

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Post-Impressionism was a predominantly French art movement that developed roughly between 1886 and 1905, from the last Impressionist exhibition to the birth of Fauvism. Post-Impressionism emerged as a reaction against Impressionists' concern for the naturalistic depiction of light and colour

  • picasso

  • van gogh

  • cezanne

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Georges Seurat

A Sunday Afternoon on La Grande Jatte (1885)

•New technique of pointillism – again, the people are faceless, but fashions are the same, as people are portrayed enjoying leisure in a green space amidst their urban lives.

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Paul Gauguin

Unappreciated until after his death, Gauguin is now recognized for his experimental use of colour and Synthetist style that were distinct from Impressionism. Toward the end of his life, he spent ten years in French Polynesia

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Vincent Van Gogh

both show the bright colors and geometric shapes and the discomfort of depersonalized urban life and also, with Starry Night (1889), what he saw when he was in a psychiatric hospital

  • post impressionist

  • crazy

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Henri Matisse

was a French visual artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painte

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Pablo Picasso

Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907)

•In the early 20th century, he illustrated the new movement of Cubism and an increasingly abstract art, but use of geometric shapes can be seen as a continuity from the Post-Impressionists.

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Les Desmoiselles D’Avignon

  • picassos naked woman

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Triple Alliance

  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, & Italy

  • bound to protect each other

  • cause of WWI

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Triple Entente

  • Russia, France, Britain

  • bound to protect each other

  • cause of WWI

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  • british ships

  • bigger & more guns

  • latest tech

  • Cause of WWI

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  • British submarine

  • steathy spying

  • cause of WWI

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Archduke Franz Ferdinand

  • Execution was tipping point for WWI

  • Austrian crown prince

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  • annexed by Austria-Hungary in 1908

  • promoted resentments among neighboring slavic nations with aspiration for their own growth ‘in middle of Turkey’s disarray

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Schlieffen plan

  • War plan for Germany

  • 2-front war

    • France

    • Russia

  • If war ensued throw all forces at France

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Battle of the Somme

  • British lost so many men against Germany

  • Bloodiest day in British history

  • offensive cpaign that lasted from july to November

  • failure

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  • sinking of ship

  • 1915

  • passenger liner

  • british

  • over 15000

  • got hit by germna torpedo

  • 12,000 civilians killed

  • thought british had ammunitions hiding in there

  • created riff between Germans and US

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William Butler Yeats

  • poem

  • romantic

  • trips from opium

  • irish

  • mythological

  • nationalist

  • had hope Ireland was going to become a nation someday through peace

  • upper middle class

  • romantic poems & plays

  • rising was an eye opening experience

    • optimism was wrong

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Easter Rebelliion, 1916

  • aka rising

  • dublin

  • try to establish irish republic rebellion

  • violant nationalist

  • WWI british military would be busy

  • establish by violent means

  • intellectuals, teacher

  • post office; rebels took fighting first place

  • tried to take city over and take over island

  • british sent troops to stop them

  • monday after easter

  • couple weeks

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Woodrow Wilson

  • president

  • Great war to end all wars

  • 14 points

  • attempted to keep US out of the WWI

  • historian

  • helped create league of nations

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Fourteen Points

  • written by Woodrow wilson

  • supported the idea of lasting peace

  • peace negotiations in order to end WWI

  • abolition of secret treaties, economic barrier between nations

  • self-determination

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Kaiser Wilhelm

  • spirit of nationalism

  • ambitious monarch saw as personification of his nation

  • King of Prussian

  • Emperor of Germany

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Treaty of Versailles

  • post war treaty

  • WWI

  • most impactful treaty

  • Allies & Germany

  • treaty of revenge

  • Germany would be resentful

  • Germany had to pay billions

  • Germany was cause of war

  • David Lloyd George

  • Georges Clemenceau

  • the big 4

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George Clemenceau

  • Prime minister of france

  • part of treaty of versailles

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David Lloyd George

  • prime minister of Birtish peoplpe

  • part of treaty of versailles

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Treaty of St. Germaine

  • post war treaty

  • WWI

  • Allies & Austria

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Treaty of Sevres

  • post war treaty

  • Allies & Turkey

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  • 1919

  • the rubber-faced poet-aviator Gabriele D'Annunzio, Italian nationalism's propagandist-in-chief, swooped into the port of Fiume (now Rijeka) on the Adriatic and claimed it for Italy

  • In September 1919 the Italian poet and ultra nationalist Gabriele D’Annunzio led a paramilitary legion of veterans and other proto-Fascists in a takeover of the city,

  • defying the great powers;

  • but at the end of 1920 the Italian army, acting on behalf of the great powers, ejected D’Annunzio in the so-called ‘Christmas of Blood’

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Gabriele D’Annunzio

  • WWI veteran

  • raids Fiume for Italy

  • Prince of Montenevoso OMS CMG MVM, was an Italian poet, playwright, orator, journalist, aristocrat, and Royal Italian Army officer during World War I

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Washington Naval Conference

  • Between 1921 and 1922, the world's largest naval powers gathered in Washington for a conference to discuss naval disarmament and ways to relieve growing tensions in East Asia. In the wake of World War I, leaders in the international community sought to prevent the possibility of another war.

  • , international conference called by the United States to limit the naval arms race and to work out security agreements in the Pacific area. Held in Washington, D.C., the conference resulted in the drafting and signing of several major and minor treaty agreements.

  • prevent another war from happening

  • 5:5:3:1.75:1.75

  • poision gas outlawed as weapon

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Kellog-Briand Pact

  • outlaw war

  • pact of paris

  • settle all international disputes by peaceful means

  • prevent another war form happening

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Occupation of Ruhr (1923)

  • germany defaulted on reperation payments

  • French and Belgium forces invaded Germany

  • industrial cities

  • Mining

  • take resources

  • German labors went on strike

  • 2.5 years

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  • Germany payments for causing war

  • part of treaty of versailles

  • fell back and couldn’t pay

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weimar Republic

  • socialist party

  • Nazi saw them as weak

  • effective at resisting conditions of versailles

  • Stresemann was a leader

  • used against gov when Nazis used it to place emergency powers

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  • was supposed to be demilitarized but Hitler remilitarized it

  • This area was deemed a demilitarized zone to increase the security of France, Belgium, and the Netherlands against future German aggression

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Gustav Stresemann

  • ended German resistance to allies

  • economist philosopher

  • middle class leader

  • chancellor of Germany

  • foregin minister

  • accepted Dawes plan

  • signed Locarno pact

    • accepted redraw boundaries

  • won the noble peace prize

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Dawes Plan, Young Plan

  • lower reperations apyments for Germany to Britain, France, and Italy so the invasion can cometo an end

  • won noble peaze prize

  • intervened to becoome negotioator between Allies and Germany

  • CEO of RCA

  • won noble peace prize

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Benito Mussolini

an Italian dictator and journalist who founded and led the National Fascist Party.

declared war on the United States w/ hitler after the U.S. declared war on Japan, thus giving the U.S. grounds to enter the European war.

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  • a mass political movement that emphasizes extreme nationalism, militarism, and the supremacy of both the nation and the single, powerful leader over the individual citizen.

  • captialism & socialism

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March on Rome (1922)

was an organized mass demonstration and a coup d'état in October 1922 which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party ascending to power in the Kingdom of Italy. In late October 1922, Fascist Party leaders planned an insurrection to take place by marching on the capita

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“Corporate State”

adherents hold that the corporate group, which forms the basis of society, is the state. The state requires all members of a particular economic sector to join an officially designated interest group.

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Attack of Ethiopia (1935)

one of only two independent African nations at the time, was invaded on Oct. 3, 1935 by Fascist Italy under Benito Mussolini. The Italians committed countless atrocities on the independent African state. Poisonous gas, aerial bombardment, flame throwers, and concentration camps were all employed.

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League of Nations

  • last point of 14 points

  • main foundation of argument

  • A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike

  • international debating society

  • international peacekeeping force

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Manchuria (Manchukuo)

  • where Manchu emperors are from

  • manufactured crisis by Japan

    • insisted Chinese farmers had blown up a railroad

  • Japan created puppet state

  • League of Nations ineffective in stopping them

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Spartacist Revolt

  • igroup of radical communist tried to overthrow Weimar Republic

  • Government put it down with army and with the army and war veterans paramilitary groups

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Adolf Hitler

  • espiritu de amti cristo

  • jewish hater

  • german in charge

  • leader of nazi party

  • killed himself before trials

  • believed ultimate race

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Beer Hall Putsch (Munich)

  • Hitler and Nazis try to take over government

  • same time as french & belgium in ruhr valley

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Erich Ludendorff

  • well known German commander

  • victories on the Easter Front

  • leading into Poland and Russian territory

  • had victories on eastern front

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Mein Kampf

  • My struggle

  • written by Adolf Hitler

  • wrote in prison

  • articulate Nazi aims in 1924

  • help become true public face of the party

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Picasso’s Guernica

  • symbolized chaos in town where fascist aircraft bombed

  • 400-1600 people die

  • Bombed by German & Italian planes

<ul><li><p>symbolized chaos in town where fascist aircraft bombed</p></li><li><p>400-1600 people die</p></li><li><p>Bombed by German &amp; Italian planes</p></li></ul>
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Francisco Franco

  • spanish General that led his Fascist Falange against the left-leaning gov of the Republic

  • military coup

  • Remained dictator of spain for 36 years

    • died in power

  • laid ground work for spanish monarchy to be revived

  • aided by German & Italians w/ war material

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German highway system?

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Reichstag fire

  • Feb 1933

  • Nazis blamed the Communists for it

  • excuse to impose emergency powers under Article 48 for Weimar constitution

  • article 48: allowed emergency provision in difficult times

  • used these powers to intimidate opposition

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Paul von Hindenberg

  • reluctantly made Hitler Chancellor in 1933

  • looked to for leadership of the Nazis

  • well known German commander

    • victories on the Easter Front

    • leading into Poland and Russian territory

    • had victories on eastern front

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  • annexation of Austria by the Nazis

  • a German word that means “connection” or “joining.” Austria: Maps By annexing Austria, the Nazis violated the Treaty of Versailles and the Treaty of Saint-Germain. These treaties expressly forbade the unification of Austria and Germany.

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Nuremberg Laws

  • 1935

  • Nazi imposed laws on Jews to take away civil rights

    • couldn’t enter Germany univ

    • Jews & non-jews couldn’t marry

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  • night of glass

  • Nov 9-10 1938

  • 260 + synagogues & 7,000 Jewish owned business were destroyed

  • 91 reported deaths

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  • Foreign policy of pacifying an aggrieved country through negotiation in order to prevent war.

  • Britain tried with Germany but didn’t work

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Neville Chamberlain

  • British Prime minister

  • Tried to get Hitler’s signature on peace, on paper

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Munich Conference

  • Hitler, Chamberlain, & Deladier

  • peace paper

  • fake?

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  • western part of Czechoslovakia

  • Hitler tried to annex

  • Czech security & territorial integrity assured by Britain & France

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  • was a landlocked state in Central Europe,

  • created in 1918, when it declared its independence from Austria-Hungary

  • In 1938, after the Munich Agreement, the Sudetenland became part of Nazi Germany,

  • while the country lost further territories to Hungary and Poland

  • was formed from several provinces of the collapsing empire of Austria-Hungary in 1918, at the end of World War I

  • was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1938–45 and was under Soviet domination from 1948 to 1989.

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World War II

  • as a global conflict that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries, including all of the great powers, fought as part of two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis

  • the largest and deadliest conflict in human history, involved more than 50 nations and was fought on land, sea and air in nearly every part of the world. Also known as the Second World War, it was caused in part by the economic crisis of the Great Depression and by political tensions left unresolved following the end of World War I. The war began when Nazi Germany invaded Poland in 1939 and raged across the globe until 1945, when Japan surrendered to the United States after atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

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Non-Agression PAct

  • pact between Adolf Hitler & Joseph Stalin

  • agreed that they would not attack each other & secretly divided the countries that lay between them

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  • Germany, Italy, & Japan

  • Power that formed an alliance during WW2

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Maginot Line

  • defenses put in place by France

  • All around German border

  • Left belgium border; Germans just went through there

  • French were meek against Germany

  • Britain was left alone to fight against Europe

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“Phony war”

  • early WWII called this in western Europe

  • “Sitzkrieg” making fun of Blitzkrieg

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  • Lightning war

  • style of war used by Germany

  • concentration of offensive weapons (tanks, planes, & artillery)

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Miracle of Dunkirk

  • evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force and the remaining French forces

  • stranded at Dunkirk

  • Private merchant ships & yachts help around 3,000 men

  • to avoid capture & death by Germans

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Battle of Britain

  • Hitler tried to force Britain’s capitulation

  • mostly used German air forces

  • most costly for Germany

  • Germany lost more resources than Britain

  • Britain did not surrender

  • Britain was successful because they had Radar

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