PSYCH 1100 Uconn Exam 2 Paxton

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108 Terms

1

Top-down

expectations of engagement with the world, faster recognition

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Bottom-up

no filter, information given. goals

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3

Attention blindness

an example of the power of top-down effects on perception

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4

Change blindness

so focused on one thing that you do not realize a change

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5

Inattention Blindness

missing something you're not looking for

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6

Light Waves

visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. what humans perceive as color

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7

Sound Waves

physical properties of sound waves connect to perception

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8

Loudness

amplitude (measured in decibels)

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9

Pitch

Frequency

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10

Complexity

Timbre

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11

Weber-Fechner Law

non-linear connection between actual stimulus and senses

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12

Trichromatic theory of color vision

blue, green, red cones

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13

opponent-process theory

blue/yellow, green/red, light/dark cones

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14

dual-process theory

encompasses both the trichromatic theory and opponent-process theory

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15

Outer ear

air vibrations, protection, localization, amplification

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16

middle ear

mechanical vibrations, pressure equalization

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17

inner ear

mechanical, hydrodynamic, electrochemical filtering

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18

auditory nervous system

electrochemical information processing

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19

Hearing pathway

outer ear

pinna

auditory canal

middle ear

tympanic membrane

ossicles

eustachian tube

inner ear

cochlea

auditory nerve

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20

Primary Auditory Cortex

(temporal lobe) information integrated from both ears, sound localization

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21

temporal theory of pitch perception

frequencies detected by activity levels of specific neurons in hair cells

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22

place theory of pitch perception

different portions of the basilar membrane are sensitive to sounds of different frequencies

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23

place-volley theory of pitch perception

low pitches- temporal theory, medium pitches- both theories, high pitches- place theory

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24

ipsilateral senses

go to same part/side of brain you are receiving them on

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25

thermoception

temperature perception

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26

nociception

pain perception

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27

Merkel's disk

light pressure, shape sensation

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28

Meissner's corpuscles

pressure, higher-frequency vibration

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29

Ruffini Corpuscles

stretch receptors

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30

Pacinian Corpuscles

deep pressure, higher-frequency vibrations

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31

free nerve endings

pain, temperature, itch

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32

vestibular sensory system

ear: superior canal, orticle, saccule. sensitive to gravity and movement, postural control reflex

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33

visual system is connected to:

kinesthesia and proprioception

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34

posture is controlled by

hindbrain and spinal cord

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35

Pavlovian Conditioning (Classical Conditioning)

A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.

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36

Unconditioned Stimulus (US)

stimulus that elicits reflex response in an organism

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37

Unconditioned Response (UCR)

response to a stimulus elicited by reflex in an organism

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38

Neutral Stimulus (NS)

stimulus that doesn't elicit a response until after conditioning when it becomes condition stimulus (CS)

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39

aquisition

CS + UCS

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40

extinction

CS and spontaneous recovery of CR

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41

stimulus generalization

the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response

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42

Hebbian Learning/Hebb's Law

neurons that fire together wire together, increases synapse efficacy

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43

Long Term Potentiation (LTP)

an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.

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44

operant conditioning

learning an association between a behavior and its consequence

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45

reinforcement

increases behavior

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46

punishment

decreases behavior

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47

positive reinforcement

add to increase behavior

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48

positive punishment

add to decrease behavior

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49

negative reinforcement

remove to decrease behavior

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50

negative punishment

remove to decrease behavior

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51

primary reinforcer

stimulus that is naturally rewarding, such as food or water

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52

secondary reinforcer

stimulus such as money that becomes reinforcing through its link with a primary reinforcer

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53

primary punisher

A stimulus that is inherently punishing; an example is electric shock.

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54

secondary punisher

a stimulus that has acquired punishing properties through association with other punishers

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55

fixed interval

reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed

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56

variable interval

reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

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57

fixed ratio

reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses

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58

variable ratio

reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

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59

shaping

complicated learned behaviors come from shaping and chaining. john watson thought the way you're raised is more powerful than genetics.

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60

latent learning

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

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61

Modeling

the process of observing and imitating a behavior

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62

Encoding

the processing of information into the memory system

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63

semantic encoding

the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

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64

visual encoding

input of images

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65

acoustic encoding

the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words

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66

storage

the process of retaining encoded information over time

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67

Baddely-Hitch Model

short term memory

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68

Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

long term memory

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69

Retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage. Recall, recognition, relearning. Affected by emotion, attention, and motivation.

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70

grandmother cell theory

a type of neuron responds only to a very specific stimulus - not possible

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71

sparse coding/distributive processing

recognizing bits of a memory or person

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72

prefrontal cortex

working memory, short term memory, attention

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amygdala

stress hormones, memory consolidation, emotional valence

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hippocampus

spatial memory, short to long term memory, declarative memory

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75

cerebellum

procedural memory, classical conditioning, motor learning

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neurotransmitters

build links for memory, important in arousal theory of memory

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77

lesion studies

links between different brain areas and different kinds of memory (real and TMS stimulated)

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78

animal models

useful for genetics and neuroanatomy.

genetics: knock out

neuroanatomy: lesion studies

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79

developmental studies

changes in memory and complexity, object permanence (8-12 months), executive function and working memory

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80

behavioral studies

direct/indirect memory tests, recognition and recall, working memory length and interference effects

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81

amnesia

long-term memory loss

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82

retrograde amnesia

inability to access existing declarative memories.

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83

anterograde amnesia

inability to create new declarative memories.

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84

Forgetting

losing information from memory

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85

7 sins of memory (forgetting, distortion, intrusion)

transience, absentmindedness, blocking, memory misattribution, suggestibility, bias, persistence

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86

transience

memories fade in strength over time. "forgetting curve" by Herman Ebbinghaus.

repetition strengthens memory.

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87

absentmindedness

losing hold of attention

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88

blocking

"tip of the tongue" phenomenon, retrieval is blocked

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89

misattribution

misremembering

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90

distortion

memory from long term memory gets altered every time it is retrieved

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91

suggestability

the development of biased memories from misleading information

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92

bias

prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.

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93

intrusion

involuntary repetition of a memory, strongly associated with trauma

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94

reward signals and predator signals

eliminate learned behaviors that aren't adaptive anymore

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95

stimulus generalization, creativity and idea generation

abstract away from original conditions of learning

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96

recovery after trauma, forgiveness

improve cognitive, emotional and social health

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97

rosy retrospection

The remembering of the past as having been better than it really was.

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98

self-serving bias

the tendency for people to take personal credit for success but blame failure on external factors

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99

false memory

a distorted or fabricated recollection of something that did not actually occur

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100

egocentric bias

Recalling the past in a self-serving manner

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