Animal Science- Test 3

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What is Fescue Toxicosis (KY 31)?

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What is Fescue Toxicosis (KY 31)?

Endophyte fungus produces ergot alkaloid toxins

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What happens when broodmares eat too much Fescue?

Dystocia, prolonged gestation, enlarged foals, thickened placenta, and agalactia

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What happens when cattle eat too much Fescue?

“Summer Slump,” Agalactia, thickened placenta, aborted fetuses, poor appetite

Exacerbated by fertilizing with high N; fat necrosis causes problems with digestion and calving

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How to prevent Fescue Toxicosis

Pasture Management is the only option

  • pull mares off 60 days before foaling; hay

  • Test pasture for fungus; reseed

  • Dilute by the planting of red/ white clovers, alfalfa

  • Consider endophyte-free stains

  • Keep pastures short to prevent seed heads

  • Fertilization may make the problem worse

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Factors that affect reproductive performance

Nutrition, Environment (temp, humidity, seasonality), Anatomical defects in the reproductive tract, Endocrine system imbalance, diseases

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Over-condition

rarely observed, increased dystocia, you see them a lot in “hobby farmers” and show animals

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“Flushing”

Increasing the level of nutrition (30 days before breeding)

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Why is flushing done

Increases the rate of ovulation in the herd

Effective for heifers, ewes, and sometimes guilts

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How often do producers want a cow to calve

every 12 months

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Most cows probably won’t show estrus until after day 45 postpartum, therefore only ____ estrous cycles to get them bred (21 d)

2

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A ___________ program is especially important for heifers calving for the first time

nutrition

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Why do they need extra nutrients?

Will be lactating for the first time, still growing, uterine involution (preparation for another pregnancy)

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Highest percentage in A.I. and why?

95% is turkey because they need a lot of muscling, 80-90% is dairy cattle because the bulls are mean

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Advantages of A.I.?

Maximum use of genetically superior sire

  • greater number of offspring

  • facilitates progeny testing of young sire

  • enhances genetic progress

Greater selection of affordable sires

Use deceased or dangerous sires

Aid in reduction of diseases

Improvement management

  • improved her record

  • improve uniformity of calf crop

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Disadvantages of A.I.

Increased labor, management, and facilities

Accentuate poor genetics by using inferior sire

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Future of A.I.

Brightened by the use of Lutalyse, Estrumate, and Synchromate-B for the synchronization of estrus

Future use would be increased if we could

  • Successfully sex semen

  • Breed lactational an-estrous cows

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Semen Collection

Artificial vagina

  • for bulls, stallions, and rams

  • Not for boar (apply pressure by gloved hand)

  • Used when mounting female or train to mount dummy

Electro-ejaculator

  • Probe inserted into the rectum

  • Electrical stimulation causes ejaculation

If collected too frequently, number of semen per ejaculate decreases

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After collection, semen evaluated for:

volume, sperm concentration, motility of sperm, abnormalities of sperm

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frozen semen lasts _____________

indefinitely

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For maximum conception, the sperm and ova must be at the site of fertilization at the __________

peak of their fertility

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Site of semen deposition

In uterus of cows and mares

  • Deposition in uterine horn and has lower conception due to uterine trauma and possible infection

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Superovulation

Hormone treatment of the female to induce multiple ovulations

  • Uses: multiple births and embryo transfer

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Embryo Transfer of Advantages

  • Increased reproduction of valuable dams

  • Decreased time of proof of dam through a greater number of progeny

  • Extended reproductive life of injured or older dams

  • Transport of exotic breeds or proven stock to restricted or underdeveloped areas

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Embryo Transfer Disadvantages

  • Costly…although it is decreasing

  • ET offspring are not necessarily genetically superior

  • Success rate is variable and not guaranteed

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_______ hormone is commonly used to induce cattle

FSH

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___________ are used to synchronize the estrous cycles of the donor cow and recipient cows

Prostaglandins

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What are prostaglandins?

They resemble hormones in their actions, but are quite different chemically (produced by many tissues in the body)

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Embryo Transfer Procedures

  • Selection (transfer donor must be healthy, cyclic animals of superior genetic makeup)

  • Synchronization (donor and recipient animals must be in the same stage of the estrous cycle)

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___________ is the distinguishing feature of animals

Lactation

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Mammary glands serve two functions ________ and ____________

Provides nutrition and source of passive immunity to offspring

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In the U.S. milk primarily comes from _____ lesser extent _____ and ________

cows

goats and sheep

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What makes a mammal?

Most have hair, all have mammary glands (modified sweat gland)

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Critical part of repro strategy in mammals

Lactation

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Great variation in __________ glands among species

glands

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How many glands and teats do cows have?

4 glands, terminate in 4 teats

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How many glands and teats in the mare?

4 glands and 2 teats

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How many glands in the sheep and goat?

2 glands and 2 teats

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How many glands for multiparous animals?

6-20 glands in two rows along abdominal wall

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A gland is __________

a secreting organ

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A secretion may be _____, _____, or ________

poured out (secreted) onto the surface, poured into cavity, or taken into blood

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Milk is synthesized and secreted from epithelial sells in a tissue consisting of ___________

alveoli

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What is an exocrine gland?

Gland that secretes fluid into a duct

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What is the endocrine gland

Ductless glands that secrete hormones into bloodstream, endocrinology

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What are antimicrobial proteins in milk?

Lactoferrin (binds iron (Fe) required for bacterial growth), and Lysozyme (enzyme that hydrolyzes bacterial cell walls), Immunoglobulins (Ig)

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What is the composition of milk? What makes up the most of it?

Water makes up the most of milk

Solids: Also contains lactose (1 glucose + 1 galactose), fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, other

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How much of cows milk make up water and solids?

88% water and 12% of solids

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The more fat in the milk, the more _______ the milk is

yellow

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Time of sampling during milking

First-drawn milk (fore-milk) lower in fat and increases as milk is removed

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“Fat leaves _________”

last

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Fat % varies by __________

season

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Higher in ________ and __________

fall and winter

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Lower in ___________ and _____________

spring and summer

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Temperatures >85

milk accentuated with high humidity

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What are factors that affects milk production

Inheritance determines potential

  • Low producers vs. high producers

Feed and management determine whether potential is reached

  • Proper feed and care

  • Production influenced by herd health

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Male offspring cause ________ milk production

greater

  • males are heavier and grow more quickly

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Adjust production to the ________ of the calf

consumption

  • continue milking the cow or put on another calf

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Multiple births produce _________ milk than females with single births

more

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Age of animal- max production at _____ yrs.

6

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Younger and older females produce less milk vs. females that have had _________ lactations

several

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__________ needs greater during lactation than gestation

nutritional

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Inadequate _______ or _________ forces cow to draw from her own body to sustain milk production

quality or quantity

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Mastitis

Inflammation of the udder

Most costly disease of dairy cattle

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What is mastitis caused by?

Usually caused by chronic infection of streptococcus and staphylococcus bacteria

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What are the three main causes of mastitis?

Dirty or poorly adjusted milking equipment, poor milking practices (dirty animals), and injuries to cows because of their surroundings

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Mastitis is recognized by ___________

milker

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Detection or a symptom of mastitis is

clots or flakes in milk

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What happens to the udder when the cow has mastitis

  • quarter of udder is sensitive to touch

  • she kicks a lot when touching there

  • swollen or hot to touch

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How to test for mastitis?

Tested for via California mastitis test

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How to treat mastitis?

Treated by intramammary injection of antibiotics

  • Antibiotics in milk are illegal; not destroyed by heat

  • Observe withholding periods

  • Dump it down the drain or use it to feed calves

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How to avoid mastitis?

More frequent milking to reduction pathogen load and reduce growth medium (milk)

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Prior to birth, fetus is in a ___________________ environment

sterile, protected, moist, and warm

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At birth, fetus is exposed to ___________ environment

cold, dry

exposed to harmful organisms and predators

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_______ is of paramount importance and why

Milk

  • survival, development, and growth of young

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Why is Colostrum important?

  • Newborn has little or no immunity

  • Transfer of immunoglobulins

    • passive immunity transfer

    • Protect from harmful microorganisms that cause illness

  • Intestinal absorption of Ig lasts only 24 hours

    • Intestinal wall of newborn permits antibody absorption

    • Newborns must receive colostrum early

    • The gut wall becomes less porous allowing little absorption

  • Should have frozen colostrum on hand

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Greater variation in milm composition occurs after ________

calving

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Colostrum

Greatest variation in milk composition occurs after calving

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Transition from producing colostrum to producing normal milk takes _____________

3-5 days

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Milk not salable until the __________ milking

11th

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Composition of Colustrum

Contains antibodies, Vitamin A and D, fat, protein, most minerals

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Mammary gland that lactates ___________ is not genetically favorable

Continually

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Glands develop and function in concert with the _______________ cycle

reproductive

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Mammals reproduce ___________ times in their lives

multiple

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Mammogenesis

structural development or growth of mammary gland

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Lactogenesis

associated with the end of pregnancy and parturition; tissues changes from non-lactating to lactating state

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Milk secretion

synthesis of milk by epithelial cells

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Milk removal

passive removal from cisterns and ejection of milk from alveolar lumen

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Lactation

milk secretion + milk removal

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Galactopoesis

maintenance of lactation

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Suspension

Maintain attachment to the body

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Median Suspensory Ligament

Separates left and right halves of udder

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Lateral suspensory ligament

outer wall of udder

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Four Glands or Quarters

Separate from each other- milk cannot move between quarters

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Teats are ____ inches long in cow

2-2.5

hollow tubes of skin, muscle and erectile tissue hanging from udder

Valve close top and bottom; sphincter muscle closes

Bottom opening = “streak canal”

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What happens when cows are born with extra teats?

Removed less than 1 year old

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Milk collecting system explain

Many collecting ducts (large and small)

Gland cistern and teat cistern

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Alveolus

Sac-like structure with hollow center

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Basic milk-producing structure in udder

Very small ~1 million/ cu. inch

Alveolus

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Lumen lined with single layer of epithelial cells, what does the lumen do?

  • Remove nutrients from the blood

  • Transform nutrients into milk

  • Discharge milk into the center of the alveolus

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Epithelial cells are surrounded by contractile _____________ cells involved in milk ejection

myoepithelial

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Innervation (neural system) inside udder is _______

sparse

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