final bio part I

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Life begins with…

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Life begins with…

a complete genome

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Human genome project (1990-2003)

Determined complete nucletide sequence of each chromosome

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complete nucleotide sequence

Chimpanzee

Corn

E. coli

Fruit fly

Bovine

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Mg

megabase=millon base pairs

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Genome

the entire set of DNA from an organism

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Gene density

number of found along a Mb stretch of DNA

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Eukaryotes have larger genomes than prokaryotes

Eukaryotes have more genes than prokaryotes

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Within eukaryotes

-no systematic relationship b/w genome size & phenotype

-no crrelation between number of genes and genome size

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Humans genes and genome

50k-100k predicted

3000 Mb genome (3Gb)

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large multicellular eukaryotes genomes have

lower gene density

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Have lowest gene density

humans and other mammals

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genome for humans

15 genes/Mb in 3000 Mb genome for humans

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genome for C- elegans

200 genes/ Mb in 100 Mb genome for C. elegans

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Due alternative splicing of RNA transcripts

Eukaryotes can produce more than one protein per gene

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The BEST at alternative splicing

VERTEBRATES

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exons

1.5% encoding regions for proteins, rRNA, tRNA

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regulatory sequences

5%

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introns-non coding elements

20%

makes our genes larger

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intergenetic repetitive DNA

45% makes our GENOME larger

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transposable genetic element

75%

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large segment duplications

6%

make our GENOME larger

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44% of human genome

intergenitc (between genes) repetitive DNA

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75% of intergentic repetitive DNA is made of

transposable elements

transposons

retrrotraposons

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how do genetic modifications occur?

Rearrangement of genes

Duplication of genes

Mutuation of genes

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2 types of mobile genetic elements

are common mechanism of genetic modification

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Barbara McClintock

corn

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Transposons

mobile genetic elements

DNA can be moved around the genome by 2 methods

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Leaves a copy of DNA at original site

Copy & paste

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No copy of DNA left at original site

Cut & Paste

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Transpons happend via transponsase encoded in transposon region

DNA to DNA movement

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Most common mobile genetic elements

Retrotransposons

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Retrotransposons

RNA intermediate is key

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Rerverse transcriptase is encoded in retrotransposons

Retransposons

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New copy is inserted in novel location in genome

Retrotransposons

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Original copy remains

Copy and paste method through RNA intermediate

Retrotrransposons

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Plants with very large genomes, more transposable elements; NOT genes

Barbara Mcclintock

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We would not know BArbara

if Barbara studied rice

Nobody believed her until the same thing was described in bacteria

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descent with modification

Evolution

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Many species were descedants of ancestral species very different from those alive today

Darwin proposed

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Changes in genetic composition of a population over time

Evolution

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Scala Naturae

Ladder of creation

Perfect & permanent

NO evolution

Aristotle

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Father of Taxonomy

Linnaean Taxonomy

Binominal nomenclature

Genus species

NO evolution

Species divinely created

Perfect & PERMANENT

“nested classification”

Carl von Linne

Carolus Linnaeus

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know for his mistake!

Evolutionary Theory

Driven by NEED

Mechanismo= Inherit ACQUIRED characteristics

De Lammarck

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ACCQUIRED TRAIT

the change is not written in the genome

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HERITABLE TRAITS

traits carried in the genome heritable traits can be passed on to future generations

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Father Paleontology = study fossils

Cuvier

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Examined strata (layers of sedimentary rock)

Observed older fossils=more dissimilar form modern

Cuvier

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Established extinctions as a phenomena

Cuvier

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Catastrophism as mechanism of evolution

(floods, draught)

Only way to evolve is through disaster/ disturbance

Cuvier

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2 Important influences on Darwin

James Hutton

Charles Lyell

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Theory of Gradualism

Profund geologic changes were cumulative

slow and continous process

James Hutton

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Geologist

Theory of UNIFORMITARIANISM

geologic processes had not changed throught Earth´s history

Charles Lyell

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Corn genome has 85%

transposable elements

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Based on Hutton and Lyell´s theories, Darwin surmised…

If geologic changes are the result of slow, continuous change, Earth is older than theologians infer.

Slow, subtle, processes presisting for long periods could also act on organism, producing, substantial changes over time.

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Father of biogeography

sent Darwin his theory

share credit for similar theories

Darwin was more complete

Natural Selection as mechanism of evolution

A. R. Wallace

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Was introudced as mechanism of evolution

Natural Selection

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Mechanism of evolution

Natural Selection

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Process in which individuals have certain heritable traits survive and reproduce at higher rate than other individuals becuase of those traits.

Natural selection

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Increase the match between organisms and their environment

natural selection over time

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enviroment changes

individuals move to a new environment.

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will result in adaptation to these new conditions, sometime giving rise to new species in the process

natural selection

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Individuals do NOT evolve,

POPULATIONS do. A population is the smallest group that can evolve over time

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Can act only on heritable traits

natural selction

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is favorable in one environment may be useless or even detrimential in another environment

A trait

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Organism no longer match

because of climate change: BAD

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Supported by an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence

EVOLUTION

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4 documentation of evolution

  1. Direct observation of naturla selection

  2. Fossil Record

  3. Homology

  4. Biogeography

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Soapberry bug beak length

Based on foof they consume

Direct observation

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Editing mechanism

Selects favorable traits

Natural selection

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Traits adapative in one environmetn may be detrimental in another

Natural selection

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Similarity in characteristic traits from common ancestry

(mammalian forelimb skeletal structure)

Homology

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Similarity in chatacteristic traits from common ancestry

May only found during DEVELOPMENT

4 key CHORDATA characteristics:

post-anal tail

pharyngeal archeas

norchord

Dorsal hollow nerve cord

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Trace limb structure

Trace skull bones

Fossil Record

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The study of the geographic distribution of species

Camelids: continental drift is mechanism

Biogeography

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Individuals do not evolve

Populations do

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Favored larged break size present in individuals

Natural selection

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each finch started and ended drought with original beak size

average beak size of finch population increase

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natural selection favored larger beak size present in individuals

smaller beaked finches died;

larged beaked finches lived

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individual finches

didn´t evolve

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a change in allele frequencies in a population overtime

microevolution

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Natural selection

Genetic Drift (change mutation events)

Gene flow (transfer of individual into/out of population

3 mechanism causes microevolution to happen

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only mechanism of ADAPTIVE evolution

natural selection

it improve the match between organism and environment

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Evolution is possible

because of genetic variation

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differences among individuals in DNA composition

Usually revealed as a phenotypic variation

Genetic variation

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new genes and new alleles originate…

only by MUTATION

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genetic code for protein

gene

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location of gene on chromosome

locus

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same gene/ different sequences

alleles

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1 from each parent

homologoues chromosomes

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same

same size

same shape

carry same genes for same traits

homologous chromosomes

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different alleles

diferent sequence for gene

Homologous chromosomes

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Ocurrs during crossovers, forms new allele combinations

Sister chromatids no longer identical

recombination

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Gametes with new gene combinations are produced

Recombination

genetic variation via meiosis

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Genetic variation that evolution depends on has various origins

mutation

gene duplication

sexual reproduction

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ultimate source of new alleles

mutation

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can cause change in the nucleotide sequence of organism´s DNA

mutation

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change of a single base in gene= sicle cell disease

point mutations

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can alter gene number or position (locus)

can be detrimential

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can be harmless

mutation

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