APUSH off a cliff

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Great Columbian / Biological Exchange

1 / 517

Tags and Description

originally made by Armandmp1

518 Terms

1

Great Columbian / Biological Exchange

Exchange of plants and animals between the New World and Europe following the discovery of America in 1492.

New cards
2

Christopher Columbus

Italian explorer, sailed from Spain in 1492 and reached Americas, greatly increased European awareness of the North American Continent

New cards
3

Bartolomé de las Casas

16th Century Spanish Historian, Dominican Friar, "Protector of the Indians;" opposed atrocities by colonizers on Indigenous people

New cards
4

Spanish empire

Empire control in Mexico, South America, and Florida, religious empire; Franciscans + mission system, defensive buffers vs. English, French, and Russians. Economic empire.

New cards
5

French empire

Empire control in Canada, Ohio, and Mississippi River Valley with Louisiana. Religious: Jesuits. Positive indigenous relations. Fur trade. Coureurs du bois.

New cards
6

English/British Empire

Exhibited control in the form of dominions, colonies, mandates, and territories. Queen Elizabeth I was a prominent ruler during the colonial period of this empire. French Rivalry + engaged in Columbian Exchange.

New cards
7

Jamestown

First permanent English settlement; located in Virginia. Founded by London Company

New cards
8

Mayflower Compact

Pilgrims/Separatists agreement: agreement to obey laws created by the community and a profession of allegiance to the king

New cards
9

Chesapeake colonies

Term for the colonies of Maryland and Virginia

New cards
10

Virginia colony

This colony was founded in 1607. First settlement was Jamestown. Charter to stock company/royal. Tobacco was vital to its survival.

New cards
11

1619

The year when the first U.S representative assembly was established - House of Burgesses (Jamestown, Virginia)

New cards
12

Bacon's rebellion

Colonial uprising that took place in 1676 in the Virginia colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. Virginians resented William Berkeley's friendly policy towards Native Americans. This was the first rebellion in American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part.

New cards
13

Maryland colony

Founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore, founded to be a place for persecuted Catholics to find refuge, a safe haven, act of toleration

New cards
14

Toleration Act

Guaranteed religious toleration to trinitarian Christians, but decreed the death penalty to Jews and atheists and others who didn't believe in the divinity of Jesus Christ,

New cards
15

New England colonies

The term for the colonies of Massachusetts bay, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire

New cards
16

Massachusetts Bay Colony

Colony founded in 1630 by John Winthrop, part of the Great Puritan Migration, founded by puritans. Had a theocratic republic. "City upon a hill"

New cards
17

John Winthrop

Puritan governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Speaker of "City upon a hill"

New cards
18

"City upon a hill"

Said by Winthrop; refers to the idea that Puritan colonists emigrating to the New World were part of a special pact with God to create a holy community: a model society to the world/moral commonwealth

New cards
19

Anne Hutchinson

Woman who challenged Purtian religous authorities in Massachusetts Bay. Puritan authorities banished her because she challenged religious doctrine, gender roles. clerical authority, and claimed to have had revelations from God

New cards
20

King Philip's war

  1. longest and bloodiest conflict between settlers and natives in 17th century, native Wampanoags under KIng Phillip ( Indian Chieftain) resisted England encroachment on their land, they killed many settlers in Mass, English joined with Mohawks to defeat them

New cards
21

Salem Witch Trials

1629 outbreak of witchcraft accusations in a Massachussetts Bay puritan village marked by an atmosphere of fear, hysteria and stress. Spectral evidence was used frequently.

New cards
22

Rhode Island Colony

Self-governing colony founded by Roger Williams in 1636; granted freedom for all religions and non-believers; religious toleration; disestablishment, universal suffrage for white males w/property qualifications; most democratic

New cards
23

Disestablishment

Separation of church and state; no religion is officially supported by the state/government; opposed tax-supported church

New cards
24

Connecticut colony

Colony founded by Thomas Hooker in 1636; self-governing; origin of Fundamental Orders

New cards
25

Fundamental Orders

The first constitution written in North America; granted ALL adult males to vote not just church going land owners as was the policy in Massachutes

New cards
26

New Amsterdam

Dutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of New Netherland. This later became "New York City"

New cards
27

Restoration colonies

Colonies created as a result from the land grants in North America given by King Charles II of England The two major restoration colonies were Pennsylvania and Carolina.

New cards
28

New York colony

Colony founded by Dutch in 1624. Very diverse and wealthy colony. Contained the Hudson river

New cards
29

Pennsylvania colony

Colony formed from the "Holy Experiment"; settled by Quakers. Founded by William Penn, who bought land from the Native Americans. Allowed religious freedom

New cards
30

William Penn

An English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.

New cards
31

Georgia colony

Colony founded by James Oglethorpe. Its first settlers were debtors and unfortunates( "worthy poor"). Tolerant to Christians but not Catholics. Acted as a buffer between Spanish Florida and the Carolinas.

New cards
32

James Oglethorpe

Founded Georgia; a member of parliament; philanthropist; social reformer (helping those in debtors' prisons)

New cards
33

Mercantilism

Economic philosophy of 17th and 18th century European nations; sought to increase wealth and power through acquisition of gold and silver and establishing a favorable balance of trade. Colonies served interest of mother country through importation of its raw materials -> Exportation > importation

New cards
34

Triangular trade

Trading System between Europe, Africa, and the colonies; European purchased slaves in Africa and sold them to colonies, new materials from colonies went to Europe while European finished products were sold in the colonies.

New cards
35

Navigation Acts

Acts passed in 1660 passed by British parliament to increase colonial dependence on Great Britain for trade; limited goods that were exported to colonies; caused great resentment in American colonies.

New cards
36

"salutary/benign neglect"

150 years of colonial self-rule due to Neglect by British authorities

New cards
37

Dominion of New England

1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.

New cards
38

Glorious Revolution (in America)

Elimination of Dominion of England in 1689; Plymouth added to Massachusetts in 1691; Reinstatement of legislative assemblies; Coode's Rebellion; some royal governors; more closely intertwined empire

New cards
39

Puritanism

The religion of a group of religious dissidents who came to the New World so they would have a location to establish a "purer" church than the one that existed in England

New cards
40

Enlightenment

18th century philosophy stressing reason, and how it can be used to improve the human condition. Natural rights was a major idea that influenced Thomas Jefferson in the writing of the Declaration of Independence.

New cards
41

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.

New cards
42

Benjamin Franklin

Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity. He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.

New cards
43

First Great Awakening

Religious revival in the colonies in 1730s and 1740s; George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards preached a message of atonement for sins by admitting them to God. The movement attempted to combat the growing secularism and rationalism of mid-eighteenth century America. Religious splits in the colonies became deeper.

New cards
44

Jonathan Edwards

Preacher during the First Great Awakening; "Sinners in the hands of angry god"

New cards
45

George Whitefield

English clergyman who was known for his ability to convince many people through his sermons. He involved himself in the Great Awakening in 1739 preaching his belief in gaining salvation.

New cards
46

18th century immigration

Increase in non-English immigrants and fewer English immigrants; Scots-Irish, Scots, Germans, Dutch, Africans; poor move west for cheaper land

New cards
47

American Slavery

More than 10 million Africans brought to Americas. This institution was lifelong and generational, racial based, economically profitable, and was abolished by the 13th amendment.

New cards
48

Stono Rebellion

An uprising of slaves in South Carolina in 1739, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws. The largest slave uprising in the colonies.

New cards
49

Zenger case

The case that established the precedent that true statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel; Newspapers are not financially liable for criticism of government if actually true.

New cards
50

French and Indian/Seven Year's War

The war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in 1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse (i.e taxing)

New cards
51

Albany Plan of Union

Plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military (defense), and other purposes; the plan was turned down at every colonial assembly and by the Crown.

New cards
52

Benjamin Franklin Achievements

Spread Enlightenment ideals: need for scientific research, importance of education. Advocate of religious toleration; first "self-made man" ; only American to sign the three founding documents of the U.S (Declaration of Independence, Treaty of Paris, Constitution ; only founding father to be public anti-slavery advocate ; most democratic founding father; made the middle class individual an important factor in American society.

New cards
53

Pontiac's Rebellion

After the French and Indian War, colonists began moving westward and settling on Indian land. This migration led to this conflict in 1763, when a large number of Indian tribes banded together under the Ottawa chief Pontiac to keep the colonists from taking over their land.

New cards
54

Proclamation of 1763

A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.

New cards
55

Stamp Act

An act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents

New cards
56

Sons of Liberty

A radical political organization formed by Samuel Adams after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used both peaceful and violent means of protest

New cards
57

Daughters of Liberty

This organization supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain. They believed that way, the American colonies would become economically independent.

New cards
58

Declaratory Act

Act passed in 1766 after the repeal of the stamp act; stated that Parliament had authority over the the colonies and the right to tax and pass legislation "in all cases whatsoever."

New cards
59

Townshend Acts

A tax that the British Parliament passed in 1767 that was placed on leads, glass, paint and tea

New cards
60

Boston Massacre

The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans

New cards
61

Boston Tea Party

Demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor

New cards
62

Coercive/Intolerable Acts

Acts passed in retaliation to the Boston Tea Party; the British government closed port of Boston until tea was paid for; revised the charter if Massachusetts (which drastically reduced their powers of self-government), forced colonists of Massachusetts to house British soldiers and allowed British officers to be tried in England for crimes of violence.

New cards
63

American Revolution (1775-1783)

A period when 13 colonies gained independence from England. Based on disapproval by colonists of several taxes and other unpopular laws. Protests lead to fighting in 1775, and after two main British armies were captured in 1777 and 1781 and an alliance of the colonists with the French, the Treaty of Paris was signed.

New cards
64

Continental Congress

The legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution

New cards
65

Common sense

A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain

New cards
66

Declaration of Independence

The document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain

New cards
67

General George Washington

Commander in Chief of the Continental Army. Brilliantly led America to victory and freedom in the American Revolution. Became 1st US president

New cards
68

Battle of Saratoga

Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.

New cards
69

French Alliance

The French entered the war in 1778, and assisted in the victory of the Americans seeking independence from Britain

New cards
70

Loyalists

American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence

New cards
71

Articles of Confederation

This document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, and control coinage

New cards
72

Newburgh Conspiracy

The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in New York to address Congress about their pay, they also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan.

New cards
73

Peace of Paris (1783)

Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States, agreed to the Mississippi boundary in the west, Florida was passed back to Spain; Loyalist property that had been confiscated would be returned.

New cards
74

Republicanism

Political movement / ideology that supports the ideas that all power and sovereignty comes directly from the people and not from some authoritative person and that the success of a government depends on the characters of its citizens.

New cards
75

Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom

1779 - Written by Thomas Jefferson, this statute outlawed an established church and called for separation of Church and State. (Disestablishment)

New cards
76

Republican Motherhood

The idea that American women had a special responsibility to cultivate "civic virtue" in their children

New cards
77

Land ordinance and Northwest Ordinance

Systematic survey of land, land divided in 6 x 6 mile regions; Established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states ; laid the legal and cultural groundwork for midwestern (and subsequently, western) development

New cards
78

Shay's Rebellion

This conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes

New cards
79

Philadelphia (Constitutional) Convention

The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.

New cards
80

James Madison

Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812, author of Bill of Rights

New cards
81

Virginia Plan

Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population

New cards
82

New Jersey Plan

New Jersey delegate William Paterson's plan of government, in which states got an equal number of representatives in Congress

New cards
83

Great Compromise

Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature (Senate) and representation based on population in the other house (House of Representatives)

New cards
84

3/5 Compromise

The decision at the Constitutional convention to count slaves as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of deciding the population and determining how many seats each state would have in Congress

New cards
85

Charles Beard's Constitution thesis

A historian who argued that the Constitution was designed to protect the economic self-interest of its framers. Beard's view is largely rejected by contemporary scholars

New cards
86

Ratification of the Constitution debate

Opponents (anti-federalists) feared central power and wanted Bill of Rights; Constitution ratified at conventions; ultimately ratified b/c support of Washington and Franklin (Federalists), Federalist Papers, promise to add Bill of Rights

New cards
87

Federalist Papers

Series of essays, written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay, that defended the Constitution and tried to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the federal government.

New cards
88

Bill of Rights

A formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the United States, incorporated in the Constitution as Amendments 1-10, and in all state constitutions.

New cards
89

Washington's Presidency (1789-1797)

He set the precedent for being the President of the United States. He humbly served two terms and appointed the first cabinet. He stayed out of Congress' way and supported the United States' isolationist stance in world affairs.

New cards
90

Hamilton's financial program

A financial plan involving the funding of national debt at par value, the assumption of state debts, and the establishment of a national bank

New cards
91

Establishment of Washington D.C as nation's capital

Disagreements rose as to which state it would be a part of. In 1790, Alexander Hamilton proposed a solution that established the new permanent capital on federal land rather than in a state. President George Washington was asked to pick the site. Both Maryland and Virginia gave up land along the Potomac River that became the District of Columbia, established in 1791.

New cards
92

Neutrality Proclamation

A 1793 statement by President Washington that the United States would not support or aid either France or Britain in their European conflict following the French Revolution

New cards
93

Jay's Treaty

An agreement between made up by John Jay; said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793 ; Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution ; Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley

New cards
94

Pinckney's Treaty

Agreement with Spain that changed Florida's border, opened the Mississippi River to American navigation, and granted Americans the right of deposit in New Orleans; Spain agreed to the treaty because it feared that Jay's Treaty included an Anglo-American alliance.

New cards
95

Whiskey Rebellion

A protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government; Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy (led an army to put down the rebellion)

New cards
96

First Party System: Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans

A term that defines the period of time when the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans competed for the presidency. Federalists (Hamilton): industrial society, strong central govt., loose interpretation;Republicans(Jefferson/Madison): decentralized, agrarian society and economy, limited central govt., belief in states rights, strict interpretation. It was ended with the Era of Good Feelings. ,

New cards
97

Washington's Farewell Address

Warned against permanent foreign alliances and political parties, called for unity of the country, established precedent of two-term presidency

New cards
98

John Adams' Presidency (1797-1801)

He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself

New cards
99

XYZ Affair

Incident in which French agents demanded a bribe and loan from the U.S. diplomats in exchange for discussing an agreement that French privateers would no longer attack American ships; led to an undeclared war between U.S. and France

New cards
100

Quasi-War

Term widely used to describe French and American naval conflicts between 1798 to 1800. Neither nation declared war, although they carried out naval operations against each other

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 2595 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(133)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard69 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard70 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard94 terms
studied byStudied by 79 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard99 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard128 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard166 terms
studied byStudied by 879 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(8)