Topic 2 - Molecular Biology

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organic vs inorganic chemistry

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101 Terms

1

organic vs inorganic chemistry

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2

properties of hydrocarbons

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3

sketch + example of hydroxyl

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4

sketch + example of carbonyl

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5

sketch + example of carboxyl

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6

sketch + example of amine

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7

sketch + example of phosphate

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8

Define metabolism, monomer, polymer

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9

anabolism vs catabolism

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10

Why carbon is important

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11

How theory of vitalism was falsified

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12

State monomer, polymer and bond in carbohydrates

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13

State monomer, polymer and bond in lipids

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14

State monomer, polymer and bond in proteins

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15

State monomer, polymer and bond in nucleic acids

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16

Formula for unsaturated fatty acid

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17

Draw glucose (alpha-D) and ribose

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18

How to identify carbs, proteins, nucleic acids based on their chemical formula

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19

Define hydrophobic and hydrophilic

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20

Draw an annotated water molecule diagram

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21

Why water is polar

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22

Explain cohesive, adhesive, thermal and solvent properties of water - outline + explain property, give example of exploitation

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23

Describe solubility in water and how these are carried in blood - glucose, amino acids, cholesterol, fats, oxygen, sodium chloride

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24

Consequences of not cooling human body to cells

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25

What makes water a good coolant and how it is exploited by the body

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26

Compare thermal properties of water vs methane

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27

3 examples of monosaccharides

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28

annotate and complete diagram of maltose + word equation, what else is needed for reaction

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29

monosaccharide, produced by what, and commonly found in what of - maltose, lactose, sucrose

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30

size/number of molecules, orientation/bonding, straight or bent, branched or not, properties, function of - cellulose, amylose, amylopectin, glycogen

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31

compare + contrast structure of glucose, fructose, sucrose

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32

compare + contrast structure of cellulose, amylose, amylopectin, glycogen

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33

generalized structure of fatty acid

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34

describe saturation, unsaturation, polysaturation

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35

structure, synthesis, positioning of hydrogen, shape, packing, triglyceride temperature of - cis and trans isomers

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36

describe health risks of trans fats and saturated fatty acids

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37

causes and effects of CHD, evidence that it is caused by trans/saturated fats

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38

structure of glycerol

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39

annotate diagram of three fatty acids + glycerol, describe reaction, word equation

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40

what is produced when energy in carbs is released

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41

what is chemical energy stored as glucose for immediate use used for

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42

where is glycogen stored, why it is used in preference to lipids

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43

where are lipids stored

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44

advantages lipids have over carbohydrates in long-term energy storage

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45

formula for bmi, height vs bmi, disadvantages

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46

corresponding values in bmi table (underweight, normal, overweight, obese)

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47

how are polypeptides formed and what is needed

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48

draw annotated diagram of two generalised amino acids bonding

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49

how many amino acids do we know of, how many are synthesised by ribosomes

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50

three examples of amino acids

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51

why is there a wide range of possible polypeptides

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52

how many possible polypeptides with 8 amino acids

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53

longest polypeptide known and how many amino acids it has

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54

outline central dogma of genetics

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55

properties r-groups of amino acids can possess

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56

outline four different levels of protein structure, fibrous/globular

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57

function of rubisco, insulin, immunoglobin, rhodopsin, collagen

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58

contrast fibrous and globular proteins - r group location, shape, function, solubility, amino acid sequence, stability, examples

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59

define genome, proteome

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60

what affects proteome except genome, why proteome is larger than genome

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61

describe denaturation: refer to structure of protein

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62

what and how do factors cause denaturation

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63

define enzyme, active site, substrate, product, catalyst

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64

describe three examples of enzymes + their substrate and product

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65

suffix applied to enzymes

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66

what properties do active site and substrate complement each other in

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67

explain enzyme specificity using lock-and-key model

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68

what do polar regions of amino acids on the active site do

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69

describe induced fit model, using lock and key theory, conformational change and activation energy

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70

Explain effects of temperature, ph, and substrate concentration on the rate of an enzyme reaction using graphs

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71

list common uses of enzymes in industry

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72

describe advantages of immobilising enzymes

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73

list ways in which enzymes can be immobilised

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74

state commercial reasons lactose free milk is produced

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75

outline process by which lactose-free is produced by immobilised enzymes

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76

where is lactase found

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77

what is an immobilized enzyme

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78

symptoms of lactose intolerance

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79

why don't some people produce sufficient amounts of lactase

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80

define metabolism

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81

give examples of the failure of enzymes controlling a metabolic pathway that leads to metabolic disorders

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82

explain how enzymes catalyse chemical reactions

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83

distinguish between exergonic and endergonic reactions using graphs and a description

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84

explain the effects of a competitive inhibitor on enzyme activity with a diagram

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85

give a specific example of a competitive inhibitor

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86

explain the effects of a non-competitive inhibitor on enzyme activity with a diagram

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87

give a specific example of a non-competitive inhibitor

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88

describe impact of competitive and non-competitive inhibitors on reaction rate using a graph

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89

outline how metabolic pathways are controlled by end-product inhibition using a diagram

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90

give a specific example of end-product inhibition

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91

outline how bioinformatic databases are used to identify potential new drugs

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92

state example of a metabolic pathway that forms a chain

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93

state example of metabolic pathway that forms a cycle

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94

define cell respiration

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95

describe how ATP acts as energy currency for cells

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96

compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration

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97

outline purpose and products of fermentation

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98

compare oxidation and reduction

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99

draw a labelled diagram of mitochondria

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100

explain glycolysis using a diagram

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