microbio exam 2

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103 Terms

1

capsule

a highly organized glycocalyx that is used for attachment and serves as a virulence factor

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2

sex pilus

a specialize pilus used for the direct exchange of dna between bacteria

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3

peritrichous

a cell covered in flagella

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4

ribosome

a non membranous organelles used for proteins synthesis

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5

mitochondria

the organelle that produces much of the energy for the cell

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6

peptidoglycan

complex molecule found only in bacteria composed of carbohydrate chains held together with peptide chains

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7

coccus

bacterium with a spherical or round shape

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8

nucleoid region

region of a prokaryotic cell in which the dna is condensed

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9

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

an organelle lacking ribosome used for lipid synthesis and storage

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10

prokaryote

small single celled organisms that lack membrane bound organelles

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11

slime layer

a disorganized glycocalyx that is used for attachment

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12

cilia

short hair like structure bound to the eukaryotic cell membrane used to move fluids over the surface of the cells

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13

rough endoplasmic reticulum

an organelle studded with ribosome that contributes to proteins synthesis

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14

eukaryote

large single cell or multicellular organisms that contain membrane bound organelles

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15

pinocytosis

a process that takes small molecules into the cell through a ruffing of the cell membrane creating a vesicle

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16

receptor mediated endocytosis

a process for the uptake of large molecules in which the molecule bind to receptors on the cell causing an invagination and creating a vesicle

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17

plasmid

a piece of extrachromosomal dna

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18

gram positive

bacteria that have a thick cell wall composed of peptidoglycan

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19

lipopolysaccharide

lipid that composes the upper layer of the outer membrane in gran negative bacteria

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20

proteasome

an organelle composed of proteins complexes that contain proteases that cut proteins chains

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21

nucleus

the organelle that houses the genome of the cell

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22

endocytosis

the process of a cell taking up large polar molecules that will not fit through proteins channels in the cell membrane or pass through the phospholipids by creating a vesicle

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23

differential stain technique

a staining technique that uses two or more stains to colorize and differentiate cells

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24

lophobranchs

having a tuft flagella at one pole of the cell

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25

endospore

tough dormant environmentally resistant stage of a bacterium

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26

cytoskeleton

the inner structural support system of a eukaryotic cell composed of protein tubules

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27

genome

the dna of an organism

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28

cytoplasm

all the structures found inside the cell membrane

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29

bilayer

two layers of a molecule

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30

bacillus

bacterium that is rod shaped

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31

cell wall

outer most covering of a bacterium

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32

periplasmic space

the space between the cell wall and the cell membrane

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33

fimbriae

short stubby hair like projects on the cells of bacteria that primarily used to attachment

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34

monotrichous

having one polar flagellum

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35

cell membrane

a phospholipid bilayer found under the cell wall or in direct contact with the environment

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36

spirochete

a spiral or corkscrew shaped bacterium

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37

coccobacillus

bacterium that is shaped like a stunted rod

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38

phagocytosis

a process of taking large molecules or pathogens into a cell via the cell membrane folding outward and surrounding the molecule creating a vesicle

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39

gram negatives

bacteria with a smaller layer of peptidoglycan than gram positives

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40

peroxisome

an organelle in the form of a vesicle that contains oxidative enzymes that require oxygen

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41

lysosome

an organelle in the form of a vesicle that housed lysozymes

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42

acid fast

bacteria that have a complex cell wall composed of a mycolic acid and a thin layer of peptidoglycan

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43

glycocalyx

an additional outer layer found in some bacteria composed of polysaccharide or polypeptide

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44

simple stain technique

a staining technique that uses only one stain to colorize cells

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45

outer membrane

outer layer of lipid that composes the gram negative cell wall

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46

exocytosis

the removal of large molecules from a small by packaging then in a vesicle of lipid that fuses with the cell membrane and releases the molecules out of the cell

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47

lysozyme

a hydrolytic enzyme

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48

amphitrichous

have one polar flagella at each end of the cell

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49

teichoic acids

molecules embedded in the cell wall of gram positive bacteria

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50

arrangement

groupings of bacteria that do not grow individually

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51

flagellum

a long tail like structure that allows bacteria to move directionally

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52

inclusion bodies

small storages pockets or granules on the inside of bacterial cell

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53

golgi apparatus

an organelle that packages molecules produced by the endoplasmic reticulum for transport throughout and outside of the cell

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54

osmotic stress

stress induced by a change in solute concentration in the external environment that causes the cell to either gain or lose water

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55

axial filament

flagella found within the periplasmic space of spirochete bacteria

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56

growth factors

molecules required in the diet of a bacteria to reproduce

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57

substrate level phosphorylation

a chemical reaction in which a phosphate is added to ADP to create ATP

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58

The TCA cycle

the second step in cellular respiration in which acetyl CoA is used to create ATP NADDH and FADH2

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59

autotroph

organisms that can make their own energy from inorganic sources

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60

thermophile

microbes that grow at high temps ranging from 42c-80c

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61

psychrophile

microbes that grow at cold temperatures ranging form -5c to 15c

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62

obligate anaerobe

microbes that cannot grow in the presence of oxygen

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63

chemiosmosis

the movement of H+ back through the membrane via an enzyme to create large amounts of ATP

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64

generation time

the time it takes to complete one round of binary fission

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65

heterotroph

organisms that must intake preformed organic molecules to make energy

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66

microaerophile

microbes that require oxygen to grow and survive, bun in a specific amount less that atmospheric oxygen

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67

psychrotroph

microbes that grow at moderate temperatures ranging from 0c to 25c

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68

combination media

media that are both selective and differential

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69

electron transport chain

consists of a series of proteins embedded in a membrane that are electron acceptors and pump H+ out of the cell to help generate ATP

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70

selective media

media that contain toxic compounds that retards the growth of certain bacteria

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71

enriched media

media that contain specific growth factors that encourage the growth of fastidious and unfastidious bacteria

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72

cellular respiration

the most common form of atp production found among fungi and animals and is highly efficient at producing atp

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73

differential media

media that indicate a specific biochemical pathway used by bacteria by creating a color change in the media

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74

atp synthase

the enzyme used in chemiosmosis to create large amounts of atp

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75

glycolysis

the first step in cellular respiration in which a glucose molecule is broken down

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76

hyperthermophile

microbes that grow at extremally high temperatures ranging form 68c to 105c

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77

binary fission

the mechanism by which bacteria asexually reproduce create one offspring from one parent

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78

culture

growth of bacteria on/in a medium in the lab

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79

obligate aerobe

microbes that require oxygen to grow and survive

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80

complex media

media in which the exact ingredient (at a chemical level) and their precise amounts are unknown and are used for growing nonfastidious bacteria

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81

hemolysis

lysis of RBCs

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82

agar

a solid and semisolid medium

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83

bacterial growth curve

the consistent growth patterns of bacteria in a medium

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84

oxidative phosphorylation

a chemical reaction that couples phosphorylation with the oxidation of molecules to create ATP

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85

hemolysins

a groups of enzymes that break down the plasma membrane of RBCs to varying degrees

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86

fermentation

anaerobic substrate level phosphorylation that produce small amounts of ATP of the cell

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87

anabolism

metabolic reactions that require energy

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88

facultative anaerobe

microbe that grow in the presence or absence of oxygen by using cellular respiration when oxygen is present and fermentation pathways when oxygen is absent

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89

fastidious bacteria

bacteria that cannot be cultured or are difficult to culture in the lab

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90

aerotolerant

microbes taht grow in the presence or absence of oxygen but do not use oxygen

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91

respiration

a complex set of chemical reactions that can be aerobic or anerobic and includes substrate level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation to produce large amounts of ATP

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92

mesophile

microbes that grow at mild temps ranging form 5c to 45c

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93

chemically defined media

media that contain precise amount of ingredients and specific growth factors to culture fastidious bacteria

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94

catabolism

metabolic reactions that create energy

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95

media

an artificial growth nutrient that provide all the nutrients and conditions a microbe needs for growth in a lab setting

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96

metabolism

the sum of all chemical reaction within a cell or organism

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97

acidophile

microbes that require a pH < 6.5 to grow, with an optimal pH between 3 and 4

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98

neutrophile

microbes that prefer a pH between 6.5 and 7.5 to grow

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99

microbial growth

an increase in the number of microbes

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100

alkaphile

microbes that require pH>7.5, grows with an optimum pH of 9.5

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