Biolog 111- Exam 3

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Alcohol Fermentation

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133 Terms

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Alcohol Fermentation

a biological process by which sugar is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide

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amino acids

building blocks of proteins (monomers)

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amphipathic

A molecule that has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region.

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anabloic

complex molecules made from simple

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ATP

(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work

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ATP synthase

the enzyme that makes ATP molecules (a protein)

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Autotroph

an organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide.

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Carbohydrates

(Monosaccharride: Monomer) Polymer: Polysaccharide) Bond between: glycosidie linkage

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Catabolism

Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy.

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Catalyst

chemical agent that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy (Ea) without itsself being consumed or modified In the reaction

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cell wall

strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in some cells

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cellular respiration

Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen

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Cellulose

A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms

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chemical energy

A form of potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds between atoms.

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Chemiosmosis

the movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane

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chlorophyll

Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis

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Chloroplast

An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs

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Cholesterol

steroid family of lipids

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Chromatin

Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell

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cytosine

A component of nucleic acids that carries hereditary information in DNA and RNA in cells. Chemically, it is a pyrimidine base.

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Deoxyribose

A five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides

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Desmosomes

Anchoring junctions that prevent cells from being pulled apart

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Diffusion

Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

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DNA

A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.

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electrochemcial gradient

The diffusion gradient of an ion, which is affected by both the concentration difference of an ion across a membrane (a chemical force) and the ion's tendency to move relative to the membrane potential (an electrical force).

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electron transport chain

A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.

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Endergonic

A chemical reaction that requires the input of energy in order to proceed.

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Endocytosis

process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

A cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.

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energy coupling

The use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one.

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Enzyme

A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing

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eukarote

Organism whose cells have a nucleus and organelles

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Exergonic

Chemical reactions that release energy

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Exocytosis

Process by which a cell releases large amounts of material

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facilitated diffusion

Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels

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FADH2

redox cofactor that is created during the Krebs cycle, last part of respiration

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Fatty acid

hydrocarbon chain often bonded to glycerol in a lipid

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Fermentation

Process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen

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flagella+what does it do

hair like,assist the cell in movement. This includes certain bacteria like sperm

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fluid mosaic

model of a cell membrane as a two-dimensional fluid of mixed composition

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glcosidic linkage

A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.

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glycosylation

Addition of a carbohydrate group to a molecule.

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heat

thermal energy in transfer from one body of matter to another (kinetic energy)

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Heterotroph

An organism that cannot make its own food.

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histone

protein that organizes chromosomes and around which DNA wraps

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Hydrolysis

Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water

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Hypertonic

when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes

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hypotonic

Having a lower concentration of solute than another solution

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inner membrane

The membrane of the mitochondria that is the site of electron transport and chemiosmosis.

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integral proteins

penetrate the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer

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intermediate filaments

Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments

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inner membrane space

space between the inner and outer membrane of the mitochondria

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Isotonic

Describes a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell

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kinetic energy

energy of motion

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Krebs cycle

second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions (citric acid cycle)

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Lactic acid

product of fermentation in many types of cells, including human muscle cells

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lipid

Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

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lipid membrane

a compound which belongs to a group of (structurally similar to fats and oils) which form the double-layered surface of all cells (lipid bilayer). The three major classes of membrane lipids are phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol

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Lysosome

An organelle containing digestive enzymes

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macromolecule

A very large organic molecule composed of many smaller molecules

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Microtubules

Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure

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Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

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Monomer

A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers

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nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

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nucleus

A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

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organelle

specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell

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Osmosis

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

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outer membrane

The outer membrane is the outermost membrane in the mitochondria that protects and holds the form of the organelle.

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oxaloacetate

A four-carbon molecule that binds with the two-carbon acetyl unit of acetyl-CoA to form citric acid in the first step of the Krebs cycle.

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oxidation

The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.

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peptide bond

The chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid

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peptidoglycan

A protein-carbohydrate compound that makes the cell walls of bacteria rigid

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peripheral proteins

The proteins of a membrane that are not embedded in the lipid bilayer; they are appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane.

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peroxisome

organelle with various specialized metabolic functions; produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product, then converts it to water

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phagocytosis

Cell eating

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phospodiester bond

the linkage between the 3' carbon atom of one sugar molecule and the 5' carbon atom of another, deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA

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phospholipid

a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes

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Pinocytosis

Cell drinking

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Plasmodesmata

channels through cell walls that connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells

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plasmolysis

Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of water

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Polymer

A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.

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potential energy

stored energy

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prokaryote

A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

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protein

A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids.

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Proteolysis

decomposition of proteins

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ribosome

Makes proteins

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RNA

ribonucleic acid

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Rough ER

That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.

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saturated fat

A lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms

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selectively permeable

a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot

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smooth ER

That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes.

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steroid

lipid molecule with four fused carbon rings

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steroid

lipid molecule with four fused carbon rings

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stomata

Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move

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stroma

fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids

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substrate

reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

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Theory of Endosymbiosis

This theory states that cell organelles, like mitochondria, were once tiny, free-living prokaryotic organisms that took up permanent residence inside larger prokaryotic organisms.

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Thermodynamics

The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter.

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Thylakoid

A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.

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thylakoid membrane

The photosynthetic membrane within a chloroplast that contains light gathering pigment molecules and electron transport chains.

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