AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY ALL VOCAB TERMS

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427 Terms

1

accessibility

the degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations. Accessibility varies from place to place and can be measured.

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2

physical geography

one of the two major divisions of systematic geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and location of the Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography.

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3

connectivity

the degree of direct linage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network.

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4

sequent occupance

the notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape

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5

spatial distribution

physical location of geographic phenomena across space

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6

five themes (of geography)

they are location, human-environment, region, place, and movement

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7

location theory

a logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated. The agricultural location theory contained in the von Thunen model is a leading example.

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8

medical geography

the study of health and disease within a geographic context and from a geographical perspective. Among other things, medical geography looks at sources, diffusions routes, and distribution of diseases.

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9

spatial perspective

observing variations in geographic phenomena across space

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10

human geography

one of the major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes

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11

epidemic

regional outbreak of a disease

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12

cultural landscape

the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants.

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13

landscape

the overall appearance of an area. Most landscapes are comprised of a combination on natural and human-induced influences.

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14

perception of place

belief or "understanding" about a place developed through books, movies, stories or pictures

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15

sense of place

state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character.

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16

pattern

the design of a spatial distribution (e.g. scattered or concentrated)

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17

spatial

pertaining to space on the Earth's surface; sometimes used as a synonym for geographic

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18

fieldwork

the study of geographic phenomena by visiting places and observing how people interact with and thereby change those places

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19

place

the fourth theme of geography; uniqueness of a location

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20

pandemic

an outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide. (see also - endemic)

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21

globalization

the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The processes of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales.

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22

location

the first theme of geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project; the geographical situation of people and things.

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23

distance

measurement of the physical space between two places

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24

spatial interaction

see complementarity (a condition that exists when two regions, through an exchange of raw materials and/or finished products, can specifically satisfy each others demands) and intervening opportunity (the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away)

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25

human-environment

the second theme of geography; reciprocal relationship between humans and environment.

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26

region

the third theme of geography; an area on the Earth's surface marked by a degree of formal, functional, or perceptual homogeneity of some phenomenon

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27

movement

the fifth theme of geography; the mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the surface of the planet.

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28

reference maps

Maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of reference, typically latitude and longitude

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29

absolute locations

The position or place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth as expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude, 0° to 90° north or south of the equator, and longitude, 0° to 180° east or west of the Prime Meridian passing through Greenwich, England (a suburb of London)

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30

possibilism

Geographic viewpoint—a response to determinism—that holds that human decision making, not the environment, is the crucial factor in cultural development. Nonetheless, possibilists view the environment as providing a set of broad constraints that limits the possibilities of human choice

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31

relocation diffusion

Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones. The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of innovations by a migrating population

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32

cultural hearth

Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture

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33

generalized map

"When mapping data, whether human or physical geographers, cartographers, the geographers who make maps, generalize the information the present on maps." (de Blij, Murphey, Fouberg, ph 16)

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34

cultural barriers

Prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that particular culture

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35

rescale

Involvement of players at other scales to generate support for a position or an initiative (e.g., use of the Internet to generate interest on a national or global scale for a local position or initiative)

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36

contagious diffusion

The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person—analogous to the communication of a contagious illness

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37

hierarchical diffusion

A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples. An urban hierarchy is usually involved, encouraging the leapfrogging of innovations over wide areas, with geographic distance a less important influence

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38

global positioning systems (GPS)

Satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features

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39

stimulus diffusion

A form of diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place

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40

formal region

A type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena; also called uniform region or homogeneous region

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41

relative location

The regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places. Distance, accessibility, and connectivity affect relative location

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42

activity spaces

the space within which daily activity occurs

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43

cartography

The art and science of making maps, including data compilation, layout, and design. Also concerned with the interpretation of mapped patterns

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44

culture

The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society. This is anthropologist Ralph Linton's definition; hundreds of others exist

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45

environmental determinism

The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development. Also referred to as environmentalism

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46

culture diffusion

The expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area

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47

thematic maps

Maps that tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon

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48

independent invention

The term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other

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49

geographic information systems (GIS)

collection of computer hardware and software permitting spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, used, and displayed.

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50

time-distance decay

The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source

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51

culture complex

A related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils

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52

isotherms

Line on a map connecting points of equal temperature values

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53

cultural ecology

The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment

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54

remote sensing

A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments (e.g., satellites) that are physically distant from the area or object of study

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55

political ecology

An approach to studying nature—society relations that is concerned with the ways in which environmental issues both reflect, and are the result of, the political and socioeconomic contexts in which they are situated

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56

culture trait

A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban

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57

mental maps

Image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual's perception, impression, and knowledge of that space

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58

functional region

A region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it

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59

geocaching

A hunt for a cache, the Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates which are placed on the Internet by other geocachers

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60

expansion diffusion

The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination

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61

geographic concepts

Ways of seeing the world spatially that are used by geographers in answering research questions

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62

arithmetic population density

The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit

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63

census

A periodic and official count of a country's population

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64

child mortality rate

A figure that describes the number of children that die between the first and fifth years of their lives in a given population

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65

chronic diseases

Generally long-lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies

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66

crude birth rate (CBR)

The number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population

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67

crude death rate (CDR)

The number of deaths yearly per thousand people in a population

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68

demographic transition

Multistage model, based on Western Europe's experience, of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization. High birth rates and death rates are followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain; this is followed by the convergence of birth rates and death rates at a low overall level

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69

dot maps

Maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as a population

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70

doubling time

The time required for a population to double in size

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71

eugenic population policies

Government policies designed to favor one racial sector over others

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72

expansive population policies

Government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth

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73

infant mortality rate (IMR)

A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population

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74

life expectancy

A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live. Normally expressed in the context of a particular state

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75

megalopolis

Term used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world; formerly used specifically with an uppercase "M" to refer to the Boston—Washington multimetropolitan corridor on the northeastern seaboard of the United States, but now used generically with a lower-case "m" as a synonym for conurbation

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76

natural increase

Population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths. Natural increase of a population does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements

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77

physiologic population density

The number of people per unit area of arable land

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78

population composition

Structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education

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79

population density

A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land

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80

population distributions

Description of locations on the Earth's surface where populations live

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81

population explosion

The rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating rates of increase

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82

population pyramids

Visual representations of the age and sex composition of a population whereby the percentage of each age group (generally five-year increments) is represented by a horizontal bar the length of which represents its relationship to the total population. The males in each age group are represented to the left of the center line of each horizontal bar; the females in each age group are represented to the right of the center line

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83

restrictive population policies

Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase

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84

stationary population level (SPL)

The level at which a national population ceases to grow

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85

cyclic movements

Movement—for example, nomadic migration—that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally

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86

activity spaces

The space within which daily activity occurs

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87

nomadism

Movement among a definite set of places—often cyclic movement

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88

periodic movements

Movement—for example, college attendence or military service—that involves temporary, recurrent relocation

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89

migrant labor

A common type of periodic movement involving millions of workers in the United States and tens of millions of workers worldwide who cross international borders in search of employment and become immigrants, in many instances

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90

transhumance

A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures

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91

military service

Another common form of periodic movement involving as many as 10 million United States citizens in a given year, including military personnel and their families, who are moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty lasting up to several years

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92

migration

A change in residence intended to be permanent. See also chain, forced, internal, international, step, and voluntary migration

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93

international migration

Human movement involving movement across international boundaries

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94

internal migration

Human movement within a nation-state, such as ongoing westward and southward movements in the United States

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95

forced migration

Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate

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96

voluntary migration

Movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity, not because they are forced to move

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97

laws of migration

Developed by British demographer Ernst Ravenstein, five laws that predict the flow of migrants (become familiar with each of the five laws)

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98

gravity model

A mathematical prediction of the interaction of places, the interaction being a function of population size of the respective places and the distance between them

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99

asylum

Shelter and protection in one state for refugees from another state

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100

Chain migration

Pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links (i.e. one migrant settles in a place and then writes, calls, or communicates through others to describe this place to family and friends who in turn then migrate there)

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