Ap euro unit 2 (1648-1815)

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Peter the Great of Russia

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Peter the Great of Russia

part of the Romanov Dynasty; was an absolutist monarch who claimed the divine right to rule; he westernized & modernized Russia thus making it a great military power; created the first Russian Navy; divided Russia into provinces; and established St. Petersburg as the capital of Russia.

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Louis XIV

(1638-1715) Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.

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Catherine the Great

This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia

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Philip II of Spain

The son of Charles V who later became husband to Mary I and king of Spain and Portugal. He supported the Counter Reformation and sent the Spanish Armada to invade England (1527-1598) He was a intolerant, Catholic king.

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Thomas Hobbes

believed that people are born selfish and need a strong central authority

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Leviathan (Hobbes)

  • Treatise concerning the structure of society and legitimate government; stated that humans are naturally evil and can only be controlled by an absolute monarch; mankind must cede his natural right.

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  • One of the most influential works concerning the social contract.

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Glorious Revolution (1688)

The bloodless coup in 1688 in England when James II (a Catholic) gave up the throne and his daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange (of the Netherlands) - both Protestants - replaced James II to reign jointly. No Catholic monarch has reigned in England since.

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English Reformation

result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church, still left little room for religious freedom

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English Civil War (1642-1649)

Armed conflict between royalists and parliamentarians, resulting in the victory of pro-Parliament forces and the execution of Charles I.

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French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)

Conflict between Huguenots and Catholics in France which also overlapped with political and economic competition, leading to a series of wars, culminating in the ascension of Henry IV to the throne

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English Bill of Rights (1689)

Established freedom from taxation without representation, outlawed cruel and unusual punishment, guaranteed the right to bear arms, and many other rights.

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Many of these same rights are included in the U.S. Constitution.

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Restoration of Charles II

After the death of Lord Cromwell, England restores a monarch to the throne, son of Charles I.

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Petition of Right

  1. Signed by Charles I. No imprisonment without due cause; no taxes levied without Parliament's consent; soldiers not housed in private homes; no martial law during peace time.

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Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658)

Puritan general who helped lead parliamentary forces during the English Civil War, and ruled England as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658.

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House of Orange

This was the house that took over the English throne after the Glorious Revolution

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Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683)

worked under Louis XIV, mercantilism, followed Dutch model to make French economically successful

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Mercantilist System

A theory that government should regulate economic activity as to promote national power.

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an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.

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free market economy

a system in which prices are not controlled by the government

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Henry IV of France

Originally Henry of Navarre. He was a Politique . He became a Catholic because he knew most of France was Catholic. He gave the Huguenots religious liberty. His rule paved the way for French absolutism and helped restore internal peace in France.

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Louis XIII of France

Bourbon king of France and son of Henry IV. Probably more famous for his adviser, the Cardinal Richelieu and the growing centralization of power to the French monarchy during his reign.

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Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)

Minister to Louis XIII. His three point plan (1. Break the power of the nobility, 2. Humble the House of Austria, 3. Control the Protestants) helped to send France on the road to absolute monarchy.

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nation's policy of accumulating as much precious metal as possible while preventing its outward flow to other countries

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Triangular Trade

A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa

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Mary Wollstonecraft

English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women

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Olympe de Gouges

A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.

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Marquis de Condorcet

Transformed the enlightenment belief in gradual, hard won progress into fanciful Utopianism. Hypothesized and tracked nine stages of human progress that had already occurred and predicted the tenth stage would bring perfection

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Charlotte Corday

French revolutionary heroine (a Girondist) who assassinated Marat (1768-1793)

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy

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Republican Motherhood

Expectation that women would instill Republican values in children and be active in families; helped increase education for women

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salon movement

Wealthy French women hosted regular gatherings of Philosophers, scientists, etc. So that Ideas could be shared

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Jacobin Club

A political club in revolutionary France whose members were well-educated radical republicans.

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Invisible Hand Theory

Adam Smith's theory that the actions of independent, self-interested buyers and sellers will often result in the most efficient allocation of resources

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Wealth of Nations

This is the 18th century book written by Scottish economist Adam Smith in which he spells out the first modern account of free market economies.

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Adam Smith

Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economics. Seen today as the father of Capitalism. Wrote On the Wealth of Nations (1776) One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment.

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A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.

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Scientific Revolution

A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.

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the protection of domestic industries against international competition, by trade tariffs and other means

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A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

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Bishop Bossuet

tutor of louis XIV who taught about the divine right of the monarchy, which helped secure louis' ideal of absolute monarchy

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John Locke

17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.

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Baron de Montesquieu

French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving freedom. This greatly influenced writers of the US Constitution. He greatly admired British form of government.

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Michel de Montaigne

(1533-1592), introduced early modern skepticism, developed the essay to express his thoughts and ideas

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National Assembly of France

Governing body of France that succeeded the Estates-General in 1789 during the French Revolution. It was composed of, and defined by, the delegates of the Third Estate.

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Committee of Public Safety

The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.

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Consulate Period

1799-1804. New constitution set up a 3 man consulate, but Napoleon really held the power. Worked as an enlightened despot. Made main reforms.

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Brunswick Manifesto

Issued by Prussia and Austria on July 25, 1792. Stated that if harm done to the king or queen there would be severe retribution. Mistake - played right into hands of radical revolutionaries in France. They used it to panic France into thinking invasion imminent. Began recruiting defence force.

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French nobility who fled country to escape the Revolution

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a french rebellion that was caused by Mazarin's attempt to increase royal revenue and expand state bureaucracy, caused Louis XIV to distrust the state and turn to absolutism

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The Moscow guard who tried to keep Peter the Great from the Russian throne.

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group in a society that carries on commerce and industry ( the middle class; distinct from landowners, wage earners, farmers)

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Enlightened Despot

Absolute ruler who used his or her power to bring about political and social change

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Joseph II of Austria

The most radical royal reformer; son and successor of Maria Theresa; introduced legal reforms & freedom of press; supported freedom of worship; abolished serfdom and ordered that peasants be paid for their labor with cash

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A popular Enlightenment era belief that there is a God, but that God isn't involved in people's lives or in revealing truths to prophets.

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Natural Rights

the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property

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Peace of Augsburg (1555)

Document in which Charles V recognized Lutheranism as a legal religion in the Holy Roman Empire. The faith of the prince determined the religion of his subjects.

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Charles V

This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation

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Napoleon Bonaparte

Overthrew the French revolutionary government (The Directory) in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.

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Ferdinand and Isabella

During the late 15th century, they became King and Queen of a united Spain after centuries of Islamic domination. Together, they made Spain a strong Christian nation and also provided funding to overseas exploration, notably Christopher Columbus.

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Voltaire (1694-1778)

championed the enlightened principles of reason, progress, toleration, and individual liberty

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Published work of many philosphes in his Encyclopedia. He hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically.

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(1712-1778) Believed that society threatened natural rights and freedoms. Wrote about society's corruption caused by the revival of sciences and art instead of it's improvement. He was sponsored by the wealthy and participated in salons but often felt uncomfortable and denounced them. Wrote "The Social Contract."

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Maria Theresa of Austria

(r. 1740-80) Daughter of Charles XI of the Austrian Habsburgs, she was to succeed him after his death by way of the Pragmatic Sanction. When Frederick II seizes Silesia out of her grasp, she fails to return the province to the Austrians, but successfully manages to preserve Habsburg power. She won support from her subjects, as well as the Magyar nobility in supporting her in the war.

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Commercial Revolution

the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries. Led to increased consumerism and

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cottage industry/putting out system

a system used in the 17th and 18th century in which tasks were distributed to individuals who completed the work in their own homes. In the 1600s, British merchants tried to use the putting out system to organize a cotton cloth industry in England which eventually became outdated as new inventions sped up production and factories were created.

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Abbe Sieyes

Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.

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A belief that emphasizes faith and optimism in human potential and creativity

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This was the group of economists who believed that the wealth of a nation was derived solely from the value of its land

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Bread Crisis

Price of bread increased in France, leading to riots (1788)

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Scientific Academies/Royal Societies

-French Royal Academy of Sciences:society funded by Louis XIV, which was thought to benefit the king and state and emphasized practical science for new tools and machines

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-English Royal Society:society funded by merchants and scientists and emphasized theoretical science, which allowed them with more options

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Baroque art and music

This means "odd shaped/ imperfect pearl" in Portuguese. This is a style of European art and music in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries that was slightly imbalanced and not completely perfect. It was very colorful, emotional, and exuberant.

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Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means."

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Frederick William I of Prussia

(r. 1713-1740) doubled the size of the Prussian army (though still smaller than those of his rivals, it was the best-trained and most up-to-date force in Europe); known as the "Sergeant King," was one of the first ruler to wear a military uniform as his everyday dress; subordinated the entire domestic administration to the army's needs; installed a system for recruiting soldiers by local district quotas; financed the army's growth by subjecting all the provinces to an excise tax on food, drink, and manufactured goods and by increasing rents on crown lands

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Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.

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Saint Domingue (Haiti)

French sugar colony that had the ONLY slave revolt that resulted in the abolition of slavery

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Toussanit Louverture (political)

François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture, also known as Toussaint L'Ouverture or Toussaint Bréda, was the best-known leader of the Haitian Revolution. His military and political acumen saved the gains of the first Black insurrection in November 1791.

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A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.

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Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790

A body of legislation passed in July 1790 that redefined the relationship between the clergy and the state in France. It allowed for the confiscation of church property formerly used to support the clergy, replacing it with a guarantee of state salaries for clergymen instead. It also stipulated that parish priests and bishops be elected just like public officials. The National Assembly attempted to enforce it by requiring the clergy to take an oath, divided public opinion of the French Revolution (1789-99) and galvanized religious opposition.

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Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

Adopted August 26, 1789, created by the National Assembly to give rights to all (except women).

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Isaac Newton

Defined the laws of motion and gravity. Tried to explain motion of the universe.

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Fixing Prices and Wages

-Law of Maximum

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-attempt to satisfy Sans-culottes of Paris

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-regulate food supplies and prices

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Levee en Masse

the policy of military conscription adopted in the aftermath of the French Revolution of 1789.

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Reign of Terror

(1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed for "disloyalty"

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Malthus, Thomas

Was one of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food population. This is important because he brought up the point that we may be outrunning our supplies because of our exponentially growing population.

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Little Ice Age

17th century reduction in agricultural output and therefore population growth. By 1750, growth resumed because of the agricultural revolution and warmer temperatures.

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18th Century Population Growth

  1. High birth rate, 2. Low death rate, 3. Abundance of food, 4. Low infant mortality rate, 5. Immigration

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Treaty of Paris 1783

This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River

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Laissez-faire economics

Theory that opposes governmental interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.

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Basic principle that government and those who govern must obey the law; the rule of law

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Third Estate (France)

By far the largest social group in France. Making up nearly 97% of the population. Members of this estate had few rights, and little political power.

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Tennis Court Oath (1789)

3rd estate was locked out of the meeting room so they went to the Tennis Court room and assembled saying that they would not stop gathering until they got a new constitution

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effective way for writers to share their political views with the public. Play a role in developments leading to the French Revolution.

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Cult of the Supreme Being

a religion based on deism devised by Maximilian Robespierre, intended to become the state religion after the French Revolution, part of the movement to de-Christianize France.

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Danton, George

A radical supporter and close ally of Robespierre who was eventually declared a traitor; he was executed the guillotine

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Dutch War

(1672-1678) Louis XIV's war against William of Orange; ended with treaty of Nijmegen

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