Sociol 1C03 Final Exam

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Pillar 1 Income Programs

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193 Terms

1

Pillar 1 Income Programs

Old Age Security and Guaranteed Income Supplement

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Pillar 2 Income Programs

The Canadian Pension Plan

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Pillar 3 Income Programs

Private Pension Plans and Savings

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4

Contributing Factors of an Ageing Population

  1. Ageing baby boomer generation

  2. Increased life expectancy

  3. Declining birth rate

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5

Old Ages (numbers)

65-75 = young old

75-85 = middle old

85+ = frail old

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Stratification

Structured, systemic inequalities between groups in society that arise as the unintended consequences of social processes and relationships

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Ageism

prejudice or discrimination on the basis of a person's age (mostly to older persons)

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Life Course

A patterned sequence of individual age-linked experiences over time, entrenched in social institutions and historical influences

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Glen Elder 5 Assumptions

  1. Acknowledge human development is a lifelong process

  2. Life course analysis focuses on the sequence in which events occur

  3. Lives lived interdependently with others and social institutions

  4. Life course shaped by historical moment and geographical location

  5. Individuals construct their life courses through choices and actions

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Heterogeneity

The quality or state of being diverse in character or diverse

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Conceptual Model - Silverstein

  1. The levels of influence on behaviour, from the macrosocial to the biological and physical

  2. Developmental stages over the life course

  3. Examples of outcomes of interest

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Industrialization and Views on Aging

Elders were held in high regard - shifted - elders' opinions and authority diminished - cultural views of high regard remained

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Western Culture and Elders

Elder people viewed through negative stereotypes and the youth are idealized

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Life Expectancy

The average number of years an individual is expected to live, based on various demographic factors

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Centenarians

A person who is 100 or older

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Dependency Ratio

A measure that indicates the number of people 14 and under and 65+ compared to the number of people aged 15-64 -- increased

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Senescence

The biological aging of an organism as it lives beyond its maturity, usually accompanied by chemical and organic changes

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Social Network

A social structure formed of the relationships among individuals and organizations and the ways in which these interact with each other

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Guaranteed Income Supplement (GIS)

A monthly non-taxable benefit to Old Age Security pension recipients who have a low income

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Social Isolation

The state in which an individual lacks social interactions and networks

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21

Elder Abuse

Any action by someone in a relationship of trust that results in harm or distress to an older person

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Neglect

Lack of action by a person in a relationship of trust

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23

Health

A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease of infirmity (WHO)

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Acute Disease

Strikes suddenly and causes dramatic incapacitation and sometimes death - can become chronic if side effects become long term

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Chronic Disease

Long term or lifelong and that develops gradually or are present from birth

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Gender and Illness

Women live longer than men (socialized to take care of themselves) - men typically more overweight

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Race and Illness

Indigenous suffer from poorer health

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Class and Illness

People living in poverty have a shorter lifespan than those in high income neighbourhoods

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Disability

A restricted or total lack of ability to perform certain activities as a result of physical or mental limitations or the interplay of these limitations, social responses, and the social environment

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Downward Drift Hypothesis

Downward shift in social class due to mental illness

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Issues in Healthcare in Canada

accessibility and wait times and cost of care

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Conflict Perspective - Healthcare

Government should pay and regulate healthcare

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Interactionist Perspective - Healthcare

Emphasis on how people define - information is accessible - questioning professionals - anti-vaxxers

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Feminist Perspectives - Healthcare

Medicalization of women - lack of women in medicine

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Medical Sociology

The field of sociology that examines the social context of health, illness, and health care

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Social Determinants of Health

Social, economic, and political factors that influence the incidence and spread of illness and good health in a population

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Ableist Culture

A shared pattern of thinking that characterizes certain types of physical and mental abilities as "normal" and all others as abnormal, unworthy, or defective

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Biological Inheritance

Our unique physical and health characteristics that are present at birth or develop out of characteristics present at birth

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Age-Standardized Mortality Rates (ASMR)

Measurement of the number of deaths in a population in a given period of time, adjusted to reflect imaginary "standard" age distribution so that two or more populations can be easily compared

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Quintile

1/5 of a population according to a given measure (whether the top fifth, bottom fifth, or fifth drawn from the middle)

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41

Circulatory Diseases

Diseases associated with the heart or veins that hinder the free circulation of blood in the body

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Respiratory

Diseases associated with the lungs that hinder the free circulation of oxygen in the body

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Degenerative Diseases

Diseases that result from the gradual decline or degeneration of a body's organs, and not from an infection by germs or viruses - age-related and unavoidable - chief cause of death in Canada

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Social Causes of Suicide

Social factors that cause or at least predict high or low rates of suicide in a population

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Risk of Suicide

The likelihood a person, or type of person, will take their own life in a specified period of time

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Social Cohesion

The interconnection of people in a population achieved in social or cultural ways

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47

Durkheim - Suicide

Suicide is a predictable response to two social variables --> the loss of regulation and of integration

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Regulation

The degree to which a person's behaviour is controlled by other members of the community

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Integration

The degree to which a person belongs (or feels they belong) to a community

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50

Loss of Regulation

Weakening of the social rules that guide people's lives

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Loss in Integration

Weakening of significant social ties with other people

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52

Saving Face

Social practice that places extreme importance on how people are perceived by others

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53

Lose Face

Worsen their reputation and social standing

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Infectious Diseases

Diseases caused by bacterial or viral infection, whether airborne or waterborne

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Parasitic Diseases

Disease caused by organisms that live on or in a person and get their food from (or at the expense of) their host

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Non-communicable Illnesses

Illnesses, many of them degenerative, that don't result from infections or parasites and can't be "caught" from another person

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Person-years

The lifespan or average number of years a person lives in a population, multiplied by the number of people in that population at a given moment, or over a specified period

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58

Stress

A chemical reaction in a person's body when that person experiences fear or anxiety and a desire to escape

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Socially Induced Stress

Stress that results from threatening social conditions (extreme demands or absence of control over the situation)

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Cortisol

The chemical a human body normally releases when it's placed under stress - helps people respond quickly to bursts of stress

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Self-Medication

The excessive use of drugs or alcohol by a depressed or anxious person to cope with their own feelings - can cause health issues

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Mental Illness is a Social Construct

A culturally influenced way of viewing unusual and non-normative behaviour - ableist

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COPD

Chronic ling disease - progresses over time - inhaling pollutants

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64

Type 1 Diabetes

Less common - appears in childhood or early adulthood

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Type 2 Diabetes

Develops gradually over the lifespan, due to lifestyle choices, social factors, and environmental determinants

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Index of Child Well-Being

A numerical measure of how well the average child is doing in a specific country, in terms of their physical an mental health, and their access to cultural, social, and human capital

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6 Aspects of Child Well-Being

Material well-being, educational, peer and family relationship, subjective well-being, health and safety, and risky behaviour measures

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Cultural Capital

The availability of cultural resources in a child's home or neighbourhood

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Social Capital

The availability of social contacts, including family members, neighbours, and friends in the neighbourhood

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70

Self-Rated Health

A person's report of how well (or healthy) they feel

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71

Human Capital

The availability of resources in a neighbourhood that produce a healthy, well-functioning workforce

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David Bloom Solution to Health Inequality

Show and advertise the link between improved population health and economic growth

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73

Biomedical View of Health and Illness

Medical perspective -emphasizes Western scientific principles - health is absence of illness - human body is machine that requires repair - drugs/surgery for cures - focus on individual sick people - respond to problems instead of preventing - costly - doesn't save many lives

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74

Population Health Perspective

Focuses on how social variables influence the well-being of large groups of people - costs less - saves more lives - look at ways to reduce factors that contribute to illness

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75

Functionalism - Schools

Education as one of most important institutions - failure is from failure of manifest functions - we have dysfunction in society rooted within the manifests in the education system

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Dysfunction (education)

Education is not preparing students for jobs or being adults

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Conflict Theory (schools)

Education system perpetuates inequalities - social position effects - education does little to improve social mobility

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Neighbourhood Segregation

Access to good schools based on taxes - higher income neighbourhoods have better schools

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Residential Schools

Perpetuate inequalities and had continuing trauma

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80

Interactionist (schools)

Looks at dynamics in the classroom, labelling, self-fulfilling prophecy

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Self-fulfilling Prophecy

Labelling - if labelled as dumb, may be internalized and scores can reflect this

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82

Case of Slytherin

Treats Slytherin as the bad guys - everyone sorted in that house is considered evil - not all of them can be inherently evil - follow different routes due to being labelled as "bad guy"

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83

Feminist (schools)

Historically looks at how girls were at a disadvantage - less attention paid to them

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84

Bullying

Any form of repeated aggression marked by an observable power differential between people

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Overt Bullying

Physical aggression

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86

Covert Bullying

Exclusionary practices

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Gender Dynamics (bullying)

Boys = more likely to engage in over bullying. Girls = more likely to engage in covert bullying

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Cyber-Bullying

Using technology - common nowadays

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Safe Schools Review (HWDSB)

Talk to community and practitioners - provide suggestions and action plans - hear people out

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90

Credential Inflation

Demands for more schooling and credentials from employers and the related process of schools providing these credentials

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Over-Education

The provision of more education than is actually needed

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Social Mobility

The movement of individuals or groups across positions in social hierarchies

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Habitus

Cultural competencies into which individuals are socialized by virtue of their class positions - Pierre Bourdieau

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Ability Grouping

Separating students in different streams according to their aptitude lens - streaming

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Streaming Benefits

Students who are more capable are not held back - less gifted students can learn at their own pace without embarassment

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Consequences of Streaming

Attaches stigma to those in lower ability streams - schools systems not fast enough to respond to changing levels of aptitude - self-fulfilling prophecy of a student's capabilities - social inequalities (minority in lower stream)

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Racialized Achievement Gap

The divergence in educational achievement among ethnic and racialized groups - poor areas = low quality schools - disadvantage when going to post secondary

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Multiplication of Disadvantage

Black people more probable to live in poor neighbourhoods = poor schooling

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British North America Act

Established Canada as a country - gave federal responsibility for Indians and land reserved for Indians - deepened structural inequalities

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Five-Year Mortality

The risk of dying within the next five years

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