LESSON 1 UTS

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philosophy

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107 Terms

1

philosophy

the investigation of normal and concerning matters (e.g. information, presence, values, reason, psyche and dialect)

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2

love

philos means

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wisdom

sophia means

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Rationalism

reason is the chief source and test of knowlege

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Skepticism

always in doubt and knowledge is uncertain

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Empiricism

knowledge is from sensory experience

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Natural

knowledge and events are natural

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rationalism philosophers

Socrates, Plato, and Descartes

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skepticism philosophers

humes, socrates

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Empiricism philosophers

Humes, Locke, and Aristotle

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Socrates

he said that is a duty of a philosopher to know oneself

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systematic questioning

historian Xenophon and philosopher Plato showed how Socrates applied——- of the self

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virtue

Socrates - not knowing what you are and what___ you can attain is the worst thing that can happen to a person

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body

imperfect and impermanent aspect of us

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soul

perfect and permanent

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knowing thyself

the only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing

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Socrates’s philosophy

happiness motivates us to act towards or avoid things that could have negative effect on our lives

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Socrates view of human existence

- "accepting ignorance is when the acquisition of knowledge starts

- "unexamined life is not worth living"

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Plato’s components of soul

the appetitive soul - desires/ appetite

the spirited soul- accountable for emotions and also make sure that the rules of reason is followed in order to attain victory and/or honor*

the rational soul - rational thinking, and judging aspect

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the republic

Plato emphasized that the 3 components of soul must work harmoniously to attain justice and virtue

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Plato

- father of academy (a place where learning and knowledge starts)

- followed the idea of Socrates in Knowing Thyself

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socratic/dialectic method

finding the definition of a thing. its goal is to bring the person closer to final understanding*

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theory of forms

Plato’s contribution: ——— (refers to what's real, they're not objects that are encounter with our senses but can only grasped intellectually)*

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eternal, permanent, indivisible

ageless, therefore ———

unchanging therefore——-

unmoving and——-

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Platonic dualism

realm of the shadows - imperfect and flawed

realm of forms - *eternal things which are permanent, source of knowledge

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Plato’s philosophy

- a person who is a believer of love and wisdom will not be tempted by vices and will always be correct/moral/ethical

- allegory of the cave

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Plato’s view on human nature

- believes in the division of body and soul which form the person as a whole aside from the material things and that could be observed and associated with a person

- knowledge lies within the person's soul

- Plato's love begins with feelings and experience of what's lacking, he believes that people are intrinsically good

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St. Augustine

- considered as the most significant christian thinkers esp. in the development of latin in christian theology

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St. Augustine

wants to know the reason of evil and why it existed on people, his personal desire of sensual pleasure and questions about all sufferings in the world*

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St. Augustine contributions

- an important figure in western christianity

- to love God means to love one's fellowmen and to love one's fellowmen means never do harm to each other

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St. Augustine philosophy

everything will be better if we have God

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St. Augustine view on human nature

- realms of life:

- *God as the source of all reality and truth- man is capable of knowing eternal truths thru the esistence of the one eternal truth which is God

sinfulness of the man = *the cause of sin or evil is an act of man's freewill

- men are sinners who do not follow god's will

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greed, jealousy, pride

Real happiness can only be found in God. Problems arise because of the objects humans choose to love*

love of physical objects——-

love of other people is not lasting and excessive love leads to——

*love of self is ——

Love for God is the supreme virtue and only thru god man find real happiness*

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Rene Descartes

he argues that a person should only believe the things that can pass the test of doubt*

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Rene Descartes

Father of Modern Philosophy because of his radical use of scientific and systematic method to aid his idea and assumption*

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Rene Descartes

- introduced the Cartesian method and analytic geometry "Is there anything i can know with uncertainty?"

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Rene Descartes’s philosophy

- there were always differences in facts, ideas, and opinions

- reasoning could produce absolute truth about nature, existence, morality and God; the truths can be discovered are a priori

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Rene Descartes’s view on human nature

- he believes that to doubt is to think, the cognitive aspect of human nature is his basis for the existence of the self

- self has combination of 2 entities

*cogito ergo sum- the things that thinks(mind) which is the proof of human existence

extenza- extension of the mind (body)

- the body is like a machine that is controlled by the mind and aided by the mind

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John Locke

English philosopher*

- his works as a physician provided him with an idea that deviated from the duality of the body or soul

- a person's mind is a tabula rasa = blank state at birth, it is thru experiences that this blank state is filled, and a personal identity or "self" is formed

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John Locke

English pholosopher and physician*

- interested in politics and like his father was adefender of parliamentary system

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John Locke’s contribution

published book on a scope and limits of the human mind which played a significant role in the new era of thpught knwons as the "enlightenment"*

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John Locke’s philosophy

knowledge results from ideas produced a posteori or by objects they were experienced*

*form of processes

sensation- objects are experienced thru the senses

reflection- the mind looks at the object that were experienced to discover relationship that may exist between them

ideas are not innate but tabula rasa

believed that "nothing exist in the mind that was not first in the senses"(what the senses have experienced are simple ideas which are the raw materials from which knowledge begins)

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John Locke’s view on human nature

Morality has to do with choosing or willing the good (Price, 2000); moral good depends on conformity of a person's behaviour towards some law*

*LAWS

Law of opinions- where actions that are praise worthy are called virtue while those that are not are called vice

Civil law- where right actions are enforced by people in authority

Divine Law- set by God on the actions of man. This is deemed to bethe true law for human behavior

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intuition, deduction

- *thru math he discovered that human mind has two powers:

_____the ability to apprehend direction of certain truths

______the power to discover what is not known by progressing in an orderly way from what is already known (process)

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consciousness

- our self cannot be found in the soul nor the body but in one's _____ (Nimbalkar, 2011)

_____ is not the brain itself. it is something that goes beyond the brain

- the consciousness and the " the self" that comes with it can be transferred from one person or body to another (Nimbalkar, 2011)

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David Hume

a Scottish philosopher and an empiricist who believes that all concepts as well as knowledge come from the senses and experiences.

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David hume

Simply, the self is a combination of experiences of
a person.

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impressions and ideas

Experiences can be categorized into:

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impressions

real/actual
experiences or sensations like feeling the rough
edges of a stone or tasting a sweet ice cream

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ideas

copies of impressions/representation of
the world and sensations, like love, faith, or
even an association that this certain event is
caused by something in the past could possibly
create another reaction in the future

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Humes’ view on human nature

believed that just like casualty, the self is also a combination of imagination

there is no such thing as "personal identity" behind perceptions and feelings that come and go

there's no permanent self because impressions of things are based from our experiences where we can create our ideas and knowledge, thus it may improve or totally be replaced

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self

hume's term for the soul

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Immanuel Kant

most influential philosophers in western philosophy

contributed to the field of methaphysics, ethics, aesthetics and others

against locke who is an empiricist

reason not mere experience is the foundation of knowledge

our self organizes our experiences into something meaningful. it can do such thing because it is independent from sensory experiences, something that transcends or is above even in our consciousness

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54

Immanuel Kant

- The founder of German Idealism in which his philosophy was awakened and motivated by David Hume.

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Immanuel Kant

- mind is not just a passive receiver of sense experience but rather actively participates in knowing the objects it experiences.

- Instead of the mind conforming to the world, it is the external world that conforms to the mind.

- Knowledge is the result of human understanding applied to sense experience.

- All objects of knowledge, which includes the self, are phenomenal; that the true nature of things is altogether unknown and unknowable (Price, 2000).

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Kant’s view on human nature

When the self sees an object, it tends to remember its characteristics and applies on it, the forms of time and space. Therefore, a self must exist or there could be no memory or knowledge.

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Immanuel Kant

In the matter of God, he stated that the kingdom of God is within man; that God manifested in people’s lives therefore, it is man’s duty to move towards perfection.

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Transcendental apperception

the experience of the self and its unity with objects.

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Hume’s principles of association

resemblance, contiguity, cause and effect

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resemblance

implying common properties, being dyadic, etc

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cause and effect

people experience certain relation between objects thus cannot be the basis for knowledge

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contiguity

ideas, memories and experiences are linked when one is frequently experienced with other

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David Hume

He argued that there is no self beyond
what can be experienced.

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64

Immanuel Kant

Wrote three books: Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of Practical Reason and Critique of Judgment (Price, 2000

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65

Immanuel Kant

he believed that even though everything starts with sensations, there must be something in us that organizes these sensations and impressions to create ideas and knowledge

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66

David Hume

We do not know others because we have
seen/touched their souls; we know them
because of what we can actually
observe.

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67

David Hume

This “self” according to him is a “bundle
or collection of different perceptions,
which succeed each other with an
inconceivable rapidity, and are a
perpetual flux and movement”

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68

St. Augustine

his idea of self is merged with Plato and the new Christian perspective, which led him to believe in the duality of a person

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69

St. Augustine

he believes that there is an imperfect part of us yearns to be with the divine and there is a part of us that is not bound in the world and attain immortality

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St. Augustine

the soul must die to reach the eternal realm and only be attained if the person lives in this world with virtue

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71

Rene Descartes

his dreams instructed him to construct a system of knowledge using just the power of human reason (Price, 2000)

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Rene Descartes

in his "Discourse on the Method" and "Meditations on First Philosophy" he conclude that the person cannot only doubt is the existence of his/her self

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Rene Descartes

the mind makes a person, and the body is just some kind of machine that is attached and controlled by it

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John Locke

knowledge results from ideas produced a posteori or by objects they were experienced*

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sensation

objects are experienced thru the senses

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reflection

the mind looks at the object that were experienced to discover relationship that may exist between them

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77

John Locke

ideas are not innate but tabula rasa

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78

John Locke

believed that "nothing exist in the mind that was not first in the senses"(what the senses have experienced are simple ideas which are the raw materials from which knowledge begins)

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79

Gilbert Ryle

A British philosopher mainly
associated with Ordinary Language
Philosophy Movement.

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Gilbert Ryle

proposed that we should
instead focus on the observable
behavior of a person in defining the
“self”.

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81

Gilbert Ryle

One of the things that the duality
approach seems to state is that there
can be a private, unobservable
aspect of a person, and a different
public and observable part; one can
describe “self” as good but do
otherwise in real life.

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Gilbert Ryle

British Philosopher whose
ideas contradicted Cartesian
Dualism of Descartes.

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83

Gilbert Ryle

Used behavioristic approach
to self
(self is the behavior presented
by the person.

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84

Gilbert Ryle

Was a 20th Century
philosopher, mainly
associated with the Ordinary
Language Philosophy
movement.

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85

Gilbert Ryle

He had an enormous
influence on the
development of 20th
Century Analytic
Philosophy, particularly in
the areas of Philosophy of
the Mind and Philosophy of
Language.

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86

Gilbert Ryle’s contributions

stigmatized the
mind as the “Ghost in
the Machine” (man is a
complex machine with
different functioning
parts, and the
intelligence, and other
characteristics or
behavior of man is
represented by the
ghost in the machine.

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87

Gilbert Ryle’s philosophy

Once we encounter
others, their perceptions of
what we do, how we act,
and the way we behave will
then result to the
understanding of other
people and establishing of
who we are.

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88

Gilbert Ryle’s view on human nature

Freewill was invented
to answer the question
of whether an action
deserves praise or
blame.

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Gilbert Ryle’s philosophy

He agreed with Kant
who stated that freewill
involves a moral
responsibility which
further assumes that
man’s actions must be
moral for it to be free.

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90

Maurice Merleau-Ponty

A leading French existentialist and
phenomenologist, also contributes
to the idea by stating that mind
and body are interconnected with
each other and therefore, cannot
be separated.

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Maurice Merleau-Ponty philosophy

At the center of his philosophy
is the emphasis placed on the
human body as the primary site
of knowing the world.
Self-regarded that the body
and mind are not separate
entities but rather those two
components are one and the
same

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Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Our body is our connection to the
external world, including other
people, thus all experiences are
embodied. This also includes the
thoughts and emotions of a
person.

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Maurice Merleau-Ponty view on human nature

The world and the sense of self
are emergent phenomena in the
on-going process of man’s
becoming..
The world is a field of
perception, and human
consciousness assigns meaning
to the world.
perception is not purely the
result of sensations nor it is
purely interpretation. Rather
consciousness is the process that
includes sensing as well as
interpreting/reasoning.

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94

Paul Churchland

A Canadian philosopher known for his
studies in neurophilosophy and the
philosophy of mind (the study of the
philosophy of the mind, the philosophy
of science, neuroscience and
psychology).

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Paul Churchland

He further utilized knowledge from
other academic and research fields
to talk about the self as well as the
mind.

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Paul Churchland

One of those who proposed the use of
“eliminative materialism” or
“eliminativism”.

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97

Paul Churchland

according to him, the self is the brain

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Paul Churchland

“eliminative materialism” or “eliminativism” means
that the old terms we use to describe the mind are
outdated.
 If not mere “folk psychology”, thus the need to use
more accurate and scientifically proven terms,
esp. based on neuroscience research.
 Neuroscience somehow shows a connection of what we call mental states to that of the physical
activities of the brain.

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99

Paul Churchland

all we have is brain, so if the brain is gone, there is no self

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Paul Churchland

the physical brain and not the imaginary mind, gives us our sense of self

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