Biology 104 - Ecosphere at Crisis - Unit 4 Review

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Urban transition

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129 Terms

1

Urban transition

term referring to the trend of populations becoming more urban and less rural

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2

Urban areas

places where large numbers of people live together in relatively dense settlements and work in nonagricultural jobs

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3

Urban penalty

the human health problems associated with urban living

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4

Slum (squatter settlement)

an urban area characterized by substandard housing, a lack of formal property ownership arrangements, inadequate urban services, and high rates of poverty

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5

Bright lights syndrome

a perception that cities are places of greater opportunity, excitement, and freedom to pursue all aspects of life

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6

Informal economy

small entrepreneurial ventures that operate beyond the reach of government regulation and taxation

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7

Urban density

the number of residents per unit of space

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8

Economies of scale

a situation in which the per capita cost for a service decreases because of the increasing scale of operations

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9

Suburb

a district outside a city

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10

Suburban sprawl

the spread of urban populations away from the centers of cities to widely dispersed areas that have relatively low population densities

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11

Metropolitan area (metropolis)

a cluster of adjacent cities and suburbs

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12

Megalopolis

a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas

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13

One-use zones

distinct zones that serve one particular purpose; examples: residential subdivisions, shopping centers, office parks, schools

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14

Floor-to-area ratio (FAR)

a measurement that calculates the total floor space of building and area of land it is built upon

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15

Redlining

when the FHA and the VA who guaranteed mortgages also produced maps ranking urban areas by loan security or risk; banks wouldn't take mortgages for the housing in the "risky" sectors

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16

Planner's dilemma

the need (and difficulty) for a project to operate at both a local and a regional scale

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17

Induced traffic

the increased traffic and congestion caused by adding lanes to existing roads and highways

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18

Modal split

the percentage of travelers in an area using a particular type of transportation to get to work

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19

Bus rapid transit

when the bus system is given dedicated lanes and traffic priority, providing faster and more successful transit for less cost

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20

Mixed-use areas

area where a mixture of housing, shops, restaurants, grocery stores, offices, and public amenities are all within a half-mile of public transportation

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21

Transit-orientated development (TOD)

a term for design strategies to integrate public transportation and land-use patterns in more sustainable and resilient ways

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22

Pedestrian-oriented development (POD)

a term for design strategies to integrate pedestrian travel and land-use patterns in more sustainable and resilient ways

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23

Green infrastructure

the wide variety of green spaces that can be incorporated into urban life

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24

Hydrocarbons

materials made of strands of hydrogen and carbon molecules produced by ancient, photosynthetic organisms; Coal, oil, and gas

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25

Coal

solid fossil fuel

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26

Oil

liquid fossil fuel

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27

Natural gas

gaseous fossil fuel

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28

Oil and gas formation

  • Began forming hundreds of million years ago:- Mostly as plankton in oceans and lakes that died.- Were then buried by layers of sediment.- Failed to decompose completely.- Were subjected to extreme heat and pressure underground, which converted them into these two fossil fuels.

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29

Coal formation

This fossil fuel is formed from ancient plants in tropical swamps that were buried and subjected to years of pressure.

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30

Peat

a precursor to coal that is formed in northern and temperate wetlands; formerly dried and used as a fuel

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31

Reserves

the known masses of coal, oil deposits, and natural gas; known sources of a fossil fuel that can be economically accessed with current technology at current prices

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32

Conventional reserves

easily obtained deposits of fossil fuels; reserves in Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Russia

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33

Unconventional reserves

difficult-to-extract deposits of fossil fuels; these are oil sands, oil shales, and other deposits of hydrocarbons that are expensive to extract

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34

Mountaintop removal

a mining process commonly used to extract coal, where entire mountaintops are removed to scoop out the underlying resources (usually coal)

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35

Primary extraction

the initial drilling and pumping of available oil

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36

Secondary extraction

a pumping process where water is injected to increase pressure, forcing more oil to the surface

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37

Tertiary extraction

another process where steam is injected to allow the oil to flow more easily into the well

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38

Hydraulic fracturing (fracking)

a process of using a mixture of water, sand, and chemicals pumped at high pressure into an oil or gas well to fracture the rock and release the fuel locked up inside

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39

Tar sands

loose-grained rock deposits which require the use of steam and direct heat application to separate the oil

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40

Natural gas

_____________ _____ releases less carbon dioxide than oil and coal burning.

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41

Carbon tax

a tax levied on fossil fuels in British Columbia, Canada in 2008; taxed private and commercial carbon emissions

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42

Cap and trade

a system where a government sets an overall maximum allowable emissions standard (cap) and then creates a market that enables pollution allowances to be bought, sold, traded, or saved for the future

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43

Carbon capture and storage (CCS)

a process that prevents CO2 emissions from escaping into the atmosphere by injecting them underground

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44

Enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

a process where captured CO2 is condensed and pumped underground as a way to force more oil out of depleted wells

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45

Power

the rate at which work is done

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46

Human power

100 watts per person

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47

Cattle power

300 watts per head

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48

Inferior good

something consumed because people cannot afford what they prefer

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49

Proven reserve

the amount of a resource that can be profitably accessed with current prices

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50

Jevon's Paradox

a finding that efficiency gains in the use of a resource can lower the cost of that resource, which can cause consumption of the resource to rise

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51

Public goods

items that cannot be profitably produced because it is difficult to exclude nonpaying customers from receiving the benefits

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52

More

Coal pollutes much ____________ (more/less) than natural gas.

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53

Wind turbines

machines that use flowing air over oceans and land masses to turn large blades that in turn power a generator and create electricity

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54

Variable generation

a power source with generating capacity that changes according to the time of day, weather conditions, or other factors

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55

Photovoltaic (PV) solar panel

a panel that produces an electric charge when it is exposed to sunlight

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56

Concentrated solar thermal (CST) plant

a solar power technology that captures heat using huge mirrors to focus sunlight toward liquid-filled pipes or a centrally located "power tower"

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57

Hydropower

power generated when water is used to spin turbines and generate electricity; the leading fossil fuel alternative

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58

Nuclear power

power generated when the nuclei of atoms are split (fission), releasing a large amount of energy

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59

Geothermal power

power generated by heat from below the Earth's surface

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60

Biofuels

recently living matter or by-products of their decomposition used as an energy source

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61

Ethanol

a type of biofuel made of alcohol produced by fermenting sugars such as corn or sugarcane and then blended with gasoline

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62

Electric vehicle (EV)

a vehicle powered by an electric motor using a magnetic field to generation motion

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63

Fuel cell

a device that creates an electric current by stripping electrons from hydrogen molecules

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64

Cogeneration

combined heat and power systems that capture waste heat from power plants and use it as an additional source of heating and cooling

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65

Chemical hazards

a chemical linked to immediate or delayed health effects after exposure

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66

Biological hazards

an organic substance that poses a threat to health of living organisms

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67

Toxins

poisonous substances that can cause illness or death

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68

Environmental health

the assessment and control of the biological, chemical, and physical factors that affect our well-being

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69

3 Branches of Environmental Health

epidemiology, toxicology, and environmental justice

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70

Epidemiology

the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in specific populations

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71

Toxicology

study of negative health effects of substances on an organism

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72

Environmental justice

the principle that no community should bear more environmental burdens or enjoy fewer environmental benefits than others

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73

Pathogens

microorganisms that cause illness or infection when they take up residence in our bodies

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74

Respiratory infection

an infectious disease affecting the lungs and airways; leading cause of sickness and death worldwide

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75

Diarrheal disease

a disease caused by pathogens that affect the digestive tract; the second leading cause of death for children under 5 years of age

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76

Blood-borne pathogen

an infectious microorganism in human blood that can cause disease in humans

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77

Herd immunity

when members of a population are unlikely to become infected because most of the population is inoculated against the pathogen

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78

Additive toxins

when the toxic impact is a sum of the effects of interacting chemicals

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79

Synergistic toxins

when the toxic impact is greater than the sum of the effects of the interacting chemical

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80

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

a gas released through the evaporation or incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and other organic chemicals; found in paints and nail polish

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81

Persistence

the extent to which a chemical resists being broken down

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82

Persistent organic pollutant (POP)

a chemical that is resistant to breakdown through chemical reactions, biological processes, or exposure to sunlight

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83

Physical hazards

events or phenomena that cause harm to humans through physical damage; examples: wildfires, hurricanes

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84

Geologic hazards

large-scale events that can cause tremendous damage

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85

Landslides

geologic hazards where rock or other debris detaches from a slope and slides downhill

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86

Earthquakes

powerful geologic hazards typically caused when parts of Earth's crust shift along faults

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87

Tsunamis

powerful tidal waves that can flood coastal areas, and volcanoes can create lava and mud flow hazards

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88

Radiation

a form of energy that travels through space and penetrates various materials

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89

Ionizing radiation

a form of energy that can remove electrons from an atom

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90

Radon

a naturally occurring cancer-causing radioactive gas found in rock, soil, and groundwater

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91

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation

invisible UVA and UVB rays that are part of the energy that comes from the Sun; leading cause of skin cancer

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92

Floods

when water inundates land that is normally dry, especially through intense rainfall and rapid snowmelt

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93

Storm surge

an abnormal rise of marine waters generated by a storm over and above the predicted tide, can cause flooding

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94

Heat waves

periods of extremely and usually high temperatures that last days or weeks and can be deadly

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95

Droughts

prolonged periods of low precipitation and high evaporation rates that can lead to water shortages

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96

Incentives

positive and negative signal that pulls us toward or pushes us away a certain choice or behavior

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97

Hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow's model of how people prioritize needs and desires over others

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98

Automatic thinking

an instantaneous cognitive system distinct from our slower conscious and more reflective ways of thinking

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99

Status quo

the current situation

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100

Loss averse

a bias whereby people prefer avoiding the loss of something they already have more than they prefer acquiring an equivalent amount of that same thing

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