AP PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 4: Biological Bases of Behaviour Set II

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Lesion

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31 Terms

1

Lesion

Naturally or experimentally caused destruction of tissue.

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2

EEG

An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain’s surface.

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3

CT

A series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice of the brain’s structure.

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4

PET

A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.

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5

MRI

A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue; scans show brain anatomy.

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6

Brainstem

The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; is responsible for automatic survival functions.

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7

Medulla

The base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.

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8

Thalamus

The brain’s sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.

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9

Reticular Formation

A nerve network that travels through the brainstem and thalamus and plays an important role in controlling arousal.

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10

Cerebellum

The “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling nonverbal learning and memory.

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11

Limbic System

Neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.

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12

Amygdala

Two lima-bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion.

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13

Hypothalamus

A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.

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14

Cerebral Cortex

The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control and information-processing center.

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15

Glial Cells

Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they may also play a role in learning and thinking.

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16

Frontal Lobes

Portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements, and in making plans and judgements.

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17

Parietal Lobes

Portion of the cerebral cortex, lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.

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18

Occipital Lobes

Portion of the cerebral cortex, lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from visual fields.

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19

Temporal Lobes

Portion of the cerebral cortex, lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear.

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20

Motor Cortex

An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.

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21

Somatosensory Cortex

Area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.

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22

Association Areas

Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in the primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.

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23

Plasticity

The brain’s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience.

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24

Corpus Callosum

The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.

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25

Split Brain

A condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them.

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26

Chromosomes

Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.

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27

DNA

A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.

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28

Genes

The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing proteins.

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29

Genomes

The complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes.

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30

Monozygotic Twins

Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.

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31

Dizygotic Twins

Twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs; they are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.

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