exam 2 micro chapter 5 & 6 & 7

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prokaryotic cells

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1

prokaryotic cells

no true nucleus

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2

eukaryotic cells

cells with a nucleus and other organelles

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3

flagella

filamentous appendage that is a mechanism of motility

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4

capsule

usually made of polysaccharides, allows bacteria to adhere to surfaces, and evade immune system

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5

prokaryotic cells have what structures outside the cell wall?

flagella and capsule

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6

what defines the cell?

the cell membrane

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7

functions of bacterial membrane protein

support for structures signaling and communication export of toxins

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8

peptidoglycan is only found in

bacteria

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9

what is the cell wall subunits of bacteria?

alternating series of subunits from glycan chains part sugar and part protein

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10

gram positive characteristics

thick cell wall multiple layers of peptidoglycan stacked less likely to lyse good target for penicillin

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11

gram negative characteristics

thin cell wall single layer of peptidoglycan enclosed by an outer membrane usually rod shaped

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12

lipopolysaccharide is important medically and signals the

immune system of invasion of gram neg bacteria

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13

bacteria without a true cell wall are called

mollicutes

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14

a capsule allows the bacteria to:

adhere to surfaces grow as biofilm makes it hard for the phagocyte to destroy it

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15

forms a gel like region called the nucleoid, single circular double stranded DNA

chromosome

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16

circular, double stranded DNA that are much smaller and have a few to several hundred genes

plasmid

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17

bacterial cell division happens through:

binary fission DNA replication protein synthesis septum forms and cell divides

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18

prokaryotic ribosomes are

70S made from 30s and 50s

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19

eukaryotic ribosomes are

80s larger important medically because it is a target for an antibiotic

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20

flagella have --- that move the cell

propellars

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21

chemotaxis

bacteria sense chemicals and move accordingly they move like a drunk person nutrients attract and toxins repel

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22

endoplasmic reticulum

synthesizes proteins not destined for cytoplasm

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23

smooth ER does what

lipid synthesis and degradation, calcium storage

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24

eukaryotic cells nucleus are surrounded by --- lipid bilayer membranes

two

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25

what allows large molecules to pass?

nuclear pores

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26

what is used to make energy in the cell?

mitochondria and chloroplasts

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27

flagella and cilia are constructed of --

microtubules

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28

what do both prokaryotic an eukaryotic cells have?

ribosomes

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29

which eukaryotic cell structure is similar to and closely related to a prokaryotic cell?

mitochondria

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30

what is a characteristic of a gram positive cell wall?

thick with several layers of peptidoglycan

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31

END OF CH 5

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32

START OF CH 6

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33

what is essential for all forms of life?

carbon

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34

phototrophic bacteria

green and purple bacteria; energy for growth is derived from sunlight; carbon is derived from carbon dioxide or organic carbon

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35

chemotrophs

use potential energy stored in chemical compounds as an energy source

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36

lithographs are chemotrophs that

use inorganic chemical compounds

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37

organotrophs are chemotophs that

use organic chemical compounds

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38

conditions that influence growth

temperature atmosphere pH water availability

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39

psychrophiles are found in

polar regions

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40

thermophiles are common in

hot springs

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41

mesophiles are ---

pathogens 35 to 40 degrees celsius

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42

humans are what degrees?

37 degrees

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43

hyperthermophiles are usually members of

archaea

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44

what causes food to go bad?

psychrophiles

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45

thermophiles and hyperthermophiles are --- pathogens

not

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46

strict anaerobes --- oxygen

HATE they die with the least bit of oxygen

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47

strict aerobes --- oxygen

love have to have it they are organisms that only exist in oxygen

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48

reactive oxygen species are molecules or ions with--

too few or too many electrons which damage cellular components

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49

aerobes destroy ROS with aid of

enzymes

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50

microaerophiles are --- but --- can be toxic

aerobic, ROS

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51

aerotolerant anaerobes are ---

anaerobic but less susceptible to ROS usually lack catalase prefer anaerobic but can tolerate oxygen

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52

facultative anaerobes

aerobic and anaerobic (e-coli)

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53

most microbes are ---

neutrophiles

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54

food can be preserved by increasing ---

acidity

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55

halophiles survive --- percent concentration of salt

30

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56

all microorganisms require --- for growth

water

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57

all known halophiles are ---

archaea

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58

--- shields microbes growing within

biofilm

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59

biofilm may be hundreds of times more --- to disinfectants

resistant

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60

cells communicate and coordinate actions through

gurorum sensing

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61

quorum sensing involves:

alteration of gene expression/protein production in response in population density chemical signaling molecules signal this increase

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62

endospores are ---

destruction resistant, dormant, and require no nutrition or energy they are extremely resistant to heat, desiccation, chemicals, UV, and boiling water

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63

sporulation is triggered by

carbon, nitrogen limitation (nutrient deprivation)

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64

germination of an endospore is triggered by

heat, chemical, and nutrient exposure

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65

bacteria that rely on other organisms to make their organic compounds

heterotroph

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66

a characteristic of bacteria that grow in a biofilm is

they are resistant to destruction

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67

bacteria that are aerobic but cannot survive unless the concentration of oxygen is reduced below normal levels

microaerophile

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68

thermophilic bacterium grows in what environment

50 to 70 degrees celsius

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69

END OF CH 6

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70

start of chapter 7

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71

obtain energy from organic compounds

chemoorganotrophs

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72

donates electrons to aceptor

chemotrophy

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73

what two things do all cells have to accomplish?

synthesize new parts harvest energy to power reactions

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74

how do cells synthesize new parts?

through cell walls, ribosomes, nucleic acids

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75

how do we use microbes to our benefit?

biofuels food production important in labs invaluable models for study

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76

processes that degrade compounds to release energy cells capture energy to make ATP

catabolism

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77

biosynthetic process assemble subunits of macromolecules uses ATP to drive reactions

anabolism

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78

enzymes are produced --- the cell

by

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79

biological catalysts --- up conversion of substrate into a product by --- the activation energy

speed lowering

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80

enzymes are --- specific

highly specific

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81

an enzyme is --- up by the cell

NOT used up; it is recycled

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82

energy in systems is --- and ----

recycled and repurposed

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83

catabolism reactions are ---

oxidative (takes electrons off)

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84

anabolism reactions are ----

reductive (accepts electrons)

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85

catabolism makes -----

ATP

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86

anabolism --- ATP

uses

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87

substrate donates the electron

oxidation

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88

substrate accepts electrons

reduction

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89

3 processes to generate ATP (catabolism)

substrate level phosphorylation oxidative phosphorylation phoyophosphorlation

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90

ATP is produced directly through glycolysis or TSA cycle

substrate level phosphorylation

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91

use of proton motif force electron transport train (batteries)

oxidative postphorlyation

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92

not used by human pathogens sunlight used to create a proton motive force

photophosphorlation

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93

three central metabolic pathways:

glycolysis pentose phosphate pathway TCA cycle

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94

splits glucose to make two pyruvates generates modest ATP, reducing power

glycolysis

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95

primary role is production precursor metabolites NO ATP PRODUCED

pentose phosphate pathway

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96

oxidizes pyruvates from glycolysis generates reducing power, precursor metabolites, ATP

TCA cycle

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97

two fates for glucose molecules

can be completely oxidized to co2 for max ATP or made into precursor metabolite for biosynthesis for anabolism

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98

"splits" sugar molecules ad energy is transferred to ATP

glycolysis

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99

many bacteria use a ---- pathway

glycolysis

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100

two phases of glycolysis

phase 1- consumes 2ATP phase 2- releases energy, which is transferred to 2 ATP and 2 NADH

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