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When was England at the height of its power?
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How much of the world was under British reign?
unregulated; poor working conditions, child labor, no labor laws
Where did the poor and/or working class live?
overpopulated & unsanitary
What did authors think of industrialism?
they had mixed feelings, but many later disagreed
domesticity, moral values, dedication to duty
Who was the first monarch to be photographed?
3 periods of the Victorian Era
Early, Mid, Late
before Queen Victoria
1832 Reform Bill
1846 corn laws
What year was the Reform Bill passed?
1832 - Early Period
gave more voting rights to upper working class people that owned land
What year were the corn laws repealed?
1846 - Early Period
high taxes on imports like wheat and grain
Why were the corn laws repealed?
no one could afford to buy corn, wheat, or grains
laws being passed that supported working class
British empire expanded to Canada, India, and Australia
church split into three
3 sections of the church
low, broad, and high
strict, did not participate in many rituals, plain, puritanical
more inclusive, mix b/w low and high
rich, catholic, ritualistic, powerful
challenges religion with evolution; Origin of Species & Descent of Man
decay in victorian values
rich got richer, poor stayed the same
countries are rebelling against English rule
When was the second Reform Bill passed?
2nd Reform Bill
1867; gave more voting rights to workers
industry & imperialism
rebellion against British rule
victorian way is GONE
When does Britain lose the power that America gains?
Role of Women
few more rights
more education; could earn degrees in college (except for Oxford & Cambridge)
women were able to fight for custody of children
gain some property rights
Who could afford to get a divorce?
What remained the most popular form of literature?
Which forms of literature gained popularity?
magazines, newspapers, periodicals
Why did magazines, newspapers, and periodicals gain popularity?
steam powered press
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Sonnets from Portuguese (love poems about husband)
Scottish poet (not as popular as wife)
husband to Elizabeth Barrett Browning
What was Robert Browning known for?