Endocrine System: Hormones

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What are the two major types of hormones?

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1

What are the two major types of hormones?

  1. membrane-bound receptor hormones

  2. intracellular receptor hormones

<ol><li><p>membrane-bound receptor hormones</p></li><li><p>intracellular receptor hormones</p></li></ol>
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2

What is membrane-bound hormone?

The hormone cannot pass through the cells and needs a gated channel (non-steriods)

<p>The hormone cannot pass through the cells and needs a gated channel (non-steriods)</p>
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3

What is an intracellular receptor hormone?

The hormone that can pass easily through cells. (Steroids)

<p>The hormone that can pass easily through cells. (Steroids)</p>
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4

in _____ change occurs rapidly

membrane bound receptors (reheating a frozen meal analogy)

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5

What are the 2 mechanisms of membrane-bound receptors?

G proteins and other membrane-bound receptors

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6

What does G proteins do?

Trigger response from intracellular mediators which will cause cellular change

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7

What does Other Membrane Bound Receptors do?

Trigger a direct change to the cell

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8

What are the first 3 steps of G protein function?

  1. Hormone binds to receptor causing receptor to change shape

  2. Receptor binds to a subunit of the G protein inside the cell

  3. Subunit releases GDP then binds with and it is actived by GTP

(check image)

<ol><li><p>Hormone binds to receptor causing receptor to change shape</p></li><li><p>Receptor binds to a subunit of the G protein inside the cell</p></li><li><p>Subunit releases GDP then binds with and it is actived by GTP</p></li></ol><p>(check image)</p>
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9

What is the 4th and last step of G protein function?

  1. Subunit combines with other proteins to either:

    1. Open ion channels when Ca2+ acts as an intracellular mediator Example: in smooth muscle

      OR

    2. Activate cAMP (adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP) whcih activates enzymes through phosphorylation (attachment of phosphates) to increase or decrease their activity Example: Glucagon increases release of glucose in liver

<ol start="4"><li><p>Subunit combines with other proteins to either:</p><ol><li><p>Open ion channels when Ca2+ acts as an intracellular mediator Example: in smooth muscle</p><p>OR</p></li><li><p>Activate cAMP (adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP) whcih activates enzymes through phosphorylation (attachment of phosphates) to increase or decrease their activity Example: Glucagon increases release of glucose in liver</p></li></ol></li></ol>
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10
<p>What is Intracellular Receptors?</p>

What is Intracellular Receptors?

They can pass through cells but interact with DNA to produce a new one. Takes several hours as they are creating a new one. (Ex:Steroid hormone)

<p>They can pass through cells but interact with DNA to produce a new one. Takes several hours as they are creating a new one. (Ex:Steroid hormone)</p>
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11

What are the two types of modulated systems in our body? (modulated system = hormones that determine strength of signals)

Amplitude Modulated and Frequency Modulated

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12

What does Amplitude modulated mean?

The concentration of the hormone determines the strength of the signal.

Lower hormone = weaker strength.

Example: Endocrine System

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13
<p>What is frequency modulated system?</p>

What is frequency modulated system?

How often the signal is sent determines the strength of singal.

Low amount of hits per second = less strength

Example: Nervous system

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14

What are the 3 types of Control Secretion Rates (aka how much hormone Brain need to release)

Extracellular concentration Control, Neural control and Hormonal concentration

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15

What does Extracellular concentration Control mean?

Produces Hormones based on the concentration of non hormonal substances.

Example: concentration of glucose determines how much insulin is released

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16

What is Neural Control?

Endocrine glands produce Neurotransmitters as hormones to affect the brain.

Example: Epinephrine from the adrenal glands makes your heart beat fast.

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17

What is Hormonal Control?

Release of hormone to target a particular tissue

Example: Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland causes hormone release from the thyroid.

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18

What are the two types of feedback loops?

Positive Feedback and Negative Feedback loops

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19

What is positive feedback loop?

Signal continues to increase and stimulate the secretion of more of the hormone

Example: Baby's birth releases oxytocin for uterine contraction

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20

What is a negative feedback loop?

Signal decreases the secretion of hormones

Example: Blood sugar regulation

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21

What are the 3 types of hormone regulations (aka how stable are hormones)?

Chronic Hormone, Acute Hormone, and Cyclic Hormone.

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22
<p>What is Chronic Hormone Regulation?</p>

What is Chronic Hormone Regulation?

Relatively constant concentrations are maintained for long periods of time, Ex: GH or Thyroid

<p>Relatively constant concentrations are maintained for long periods of time, Ex: GH or Thyroid</p>
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23
<p>What is Acute Hormone Regulation?</p>

What is Acute Hormone Regulation?

Hormone rapidly increases in response to stimulus. Example: Epinephrine

<p>Hormone rapidly increases in response to stimulus. Example: Epinephrine</p>
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24
<p>Cyclic Hormone Regulation</p>

Cyclic Hormone Regulation

Increases and decreases in the concentration occur at roughly the same time and in the same amount. Example: Estrogen and Progesterone (period cycles)

<p>Increases and decreases in the concentration occur at roughly the same time and in the same amount. Example: Estrogen and Progesterone (period cycles)</p>
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