GCSE OCR Physical Education- Key Terms

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Articulating bones

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Every term on the Glossary of Terms provided for GCSE OCR Physical Education.

103 Terms

1

Articulating bones

Bones that move relative to each other at a joint

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2

blood vessels

Tubular structures that carry blood around our bodies

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3

Cartillage

A tough, elastic, fibrous connective tissue

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4

Cardiovascular Endurance (Stamina)

The ability to continue exertion while getting energy from aerobic system used to supply the body with energy

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5

Commercialisation

Links business and commerce into sport with a primary focus of profit which can lead to exploitation

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6

Co-ordination

The ability to move two or more body parts under control, smoothly and efficiently

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7

Deviance

Behaviour that is either immoral or seriously breaks the rules and norms of the sport

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8

energy balance

Energy input = energy expenditure. This equation must balance for your body weight to remain constant

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9

exercise

Activity that requires physical effort. Usually carried out to sustain or bring about improvements to health or fitness.

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10

Fartlek training

Training which varies in intensity and duration and consists of bursts of intense effort alternating with less strenuous activity

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11

Feedback

Information that is given to a performer either during or after their performance with the aim of improving future performances.

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12

Fixator

A muscle which acts as the stabilizer and helps the agonist work effectively of one part of the body during movement of another part

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13

Fitness

Your ability to meet the physical demands placed on you by the environment

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14

Frontal axis of rotation

Runs horizontally from the front to back of your body. A gymnast performing a cartwheel moves through this axis.

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15

Health

A state of emotional, physical and social well-being

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16

HIIT

Exercise that alternates between high intensity and periods of recovery.

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17

hypertrophy

The increase in size of skeletal or cardiac muscle, often as a result of training or exercise.

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18

Mental preparation

The rehearsal of a physical skill that takes place within the mind of the performer without any actual physical movement.

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19

(Not needed for mocks) Minute Ventilation

The volume of gas inhaled or exhaled from the lungs per minute.

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20

Progression

Gradual increases in exercise in order for the body to adapt through overload.

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21

Rate of recovery

The speed at which the body returns back to normal after exercise.

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22

Skills continua

A method of categorizing skills along a continuum that acknowledged that whilst they are all different they can all be classified according to their level of difficulty

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23

Stimulants

Drugs used to raise physiological arousal in the body.

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24

Synovial Joint

An area where two or more bones meet within a joint capsule and allows a wide range of movement to occur.

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25

Tidal Volume

The amount of air which enters the lungs during normal inhalation at rest.

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26

Transverse Plane

Divides the body into top and bottom

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27

Violence

Physical acts committed in sport that go beyond the accepted rules of play or the expected levels of contact within a contact sport.

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28

aerobic exercise

Use of oxygen for the duration of the exercise. Usually at moderate intensity at a continuous rate.

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29

Agility

The ability to change direction quickly at speed; nimbleness

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30

Agonist

The muscle that works to create the movement

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31

Antagonist

The muscle that works in the opposite way to the agonist

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32

Antagonistic muscle action

A pair of muscles that work together to produce movement with one muscle contracting whilst the other muscle relaxes.

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33

Anaerobic exercise

Exercise which does not allow for the predominant usage of oxygen. Usually high or very high intensity for a short period of time.

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34

Axes of Rotation

A line around which the body can turn

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35

Balance

The ability to stay upright or stay in control of body movement

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36

balanced diet

A diet that contains the correct proportions of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water necessary to maintain good health

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37

Beta Blockers

A drug used to control heart rhythm and lower blood pressure

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38

Breathing rate

the number of breaths taken in a minute

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39

Capillarisation

The development of blood capillaries in the body which increases through long term effects of exercise

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40

cardiac output

The volume of blood on,led per minute by each ventricle of the heart.

Cardiac output= stroke volume x heart rate

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41

Circuit training

Series of alternate exercises performed at stations that focus on different muscle groups

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42

Circumduction

The circular movement of a joint. It is a movement pattern that combines flexion, extension, adduction, abduction and rotation.

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43

closed skill

A skill performed in a predictable environment

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44

Complex skill

A skill which requires a lot of focus and decision making to perform

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45

confidence

The degree to which a performer believes they have the ability to perform and complete tasks with success

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46

Continuous training

Training that involves activity without rest intervals. It can be performed at any intensity

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47

cool down

The act of allowing physiological activity to return to normal gradually after strenuous exercise be engaging in less strenuous exercise. Aims to slowly decrease breathing, heart rate and muscle temperature.

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48

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)

Where the blood vessels are narrowed and blood flow and oxygen to the heart is reduced

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49

Discrimination

The unfair treatment of individuals whereby opportunities are not available to all of the different social groups.

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50

Double circulatory system

The human body has two circulatory loops in which blood circulates. One is oxygenated, and the other is deoxygenated.

Systemic - the circulatory loop that controls blood flow from the heart to the rest of the working muscles and organs.

Pulmonary - the circulatory loop that controls blood flow from the heart to the lungs

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51

extension

A straightening movement around a joint

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52

fatigue

Muscle tiredness when the body has a lack of energy

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53

FIIT

FIIT outlines the key components of an effective exercise program:

Frequency - the number of times exercise takes place

Intensity - how hard and intense the exercise it

Time - how long you exercise for

Type - the kind of exercise that takes place

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54

Flexibility

Range of movement available around a joint

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55

Flexion

A bending movement around a joint in a limb

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56

frontal plane

An imaginary line that divides the body from the front to the back vertically

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57

Gamesmanship

Where the laws of the game are interpreted in ways, which whilst not illegal, are not in the spirit of the game. Pushing the limits to gain unfair advantage.

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58

gas exchange

The movement of gases taking place at the alveoli and capillaries

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59

gender

The state of being male or female

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60

Golden Triangle

The links and relationship between sponsorship, sporting events and the media

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61

Guidance

Given to aid the learning of a skill:

Visual- use of demonstrations that allow the performer to 'see' the skill

Verbal- the coach will explain the technique

Manual- the coach will physically manipulate the athlete through the skill

Mechanical- use of apparatus or aids that assist the performer

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62

Heart Rate

number of heart beats per minute

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63

Hydration

Having the appropriate level of water in the body for it to function optimally. When this level of water falls below optimal levels it is referred to as dehydration.

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64

Interval training

Training that incorporates periods of exercise and rest

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65

Lactic Acid

A waste product produced in the muscle tissues during strenuous exercise where the anaerobic energy system is in use.

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66

Levers

1st Class - A lever in which the fulcrum is positioned between the load and the effort (EFL)

2nd Class - A lever which has the load and the effort on the same side of the fulcrum, with the load nearer the fulcrum (ELF)

3rd Class - The effort is placed between the load and the fulcrum, and the effort must travel a shorter distance and e greater than the load (FEL)

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67

Ligament

a short band of tough and flexible tissue that connecting bones together and stabilise the joint.

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68

Longitudinal axis of rotation

Passes vertically from the top to the bottom of your body. A 360 degree turn rotates through this axis.

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69

mechanical advantage

1st and 2nd class levers provide mechanical advantage, this means that a larger load can be moved with a smaller amount of effort.

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70

Media

Different forms of communication that can inform, educate and entertain people including social, internet, TV and newspapers.

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71

Muscular Endurance

the ability to move your body or muscles repeatedly without fatiguing.

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72

Obesity

The state of being overweight, with a lot of excess body fat, usually classified using the BMI calculation of 30 or above.

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73

Open Skill

These are affected by the environment and are predominantly perceptual as they must be adapted to suit the environment. These skills are usually externally paced

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74

Overload

A greater than normal stress on the body is required for training adaption to take place.

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75

Physical Activity

Movement of the body by the skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure.

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76

Plyometrics

Involves jumping, bounding, hopping exercise.

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77

Power

The ability to exert a maximal force in as short a time as possible.

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78

Reaction Time

ability to respond quickly to a stimulus

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79

Red Blood Cells

Oxygen carrying cells containing haemoglobin

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80

Redistribution of blood flow

When you exercise the blood is diverted from inactive areas to the muscles that are being used. This action is completed through vasodilation and vasoconstriction Also known as the vascular shunt mechanism.

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81

Reversibility

Any adaptation that takes place as result of training will be reversed if you stop training

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82

Role models

Someone to be looked up to (good role model) an example to follow

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83

Rotation

The turning of a body part about its long axis as if on a pivot.

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84

Sagittal Plane

An imaginary line which divides the body vertically into left and right sides.

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85

Self-esteem

A description and evaluation of a person's self worth, so how much you appreciate and believe in yourself.

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86

Simple Skill

Consists of basic movement actions that are not difficult to perform with few decisions to make.

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87

Skilful movement

A fluent and coordinated movement which is efficient, technically accurate and aesthetically pleasing

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88

Specificity

The training must be matched to the needs of the sporting activity and individual.

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89

SMART

Specific- A target to achieve

Measurable- something quantitative you can use

Achievable- something that can be done by the performer.

Recorded- a training programme record

Timed- to be achieved in a certain amount of time

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90

Speed

The ability to move quickly across the ground or move limbs rapidly through movements.

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91

Sponsorship

The giving of money or goods to performers in order to get good publicity and/or increase profit.

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92

Sportsmanship

Ethical, appropriate, polite and fair behaviour while participating in a game or athletic event; Fair play.

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93

Stamina

Cardiovascular endurance

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94

Steroids

Anabolic steroids are synthetic hormones that enhance physical performance

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95

Strength

The maximal force a muscle or group of muscles can apply against a resistance.

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96

Stroke volume

The amount of blood pumped out of the heart (left ventricle to the body) during each contraction

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97

Tendon

A tendon is a tough yet flexible band of fibrous tissue which joins muscle to bone. Pliability?

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98

Transverse axis of rotation

Passes horizontally from left to right. A somersault passes through this plane.

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99

Type 2 diabetes

A metabolic disorder that affects how your body handles glucose. Often associated with obesity and can be controlled through changes to your diet.

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100

Warm up

Preparatory exercises to prepare the body and mind for physical activity. Aims to increase breathing rate, heart rate and muscle temperature.

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