Honors Biology 9: Unit 1 - Cell Structure and Functions

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What does the surface area to volume ratio have to do with cells?

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What does the surface area to volume ratio have to do with cells?

if a cell's surface area to volume ratio is too close, then the cell has to split or else it will combust

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What does the endosymbiotic theory state?

some of the organelles in today's eukaryotic cells were once prokaryotic microbes

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What is some evidence that supports the endosymbiotic theory?

mitochondria and chloroplasts have circular DNA, 70 s ribosomes, and a double membrane

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What is cancer?

an abnormal growth of the cell; there are no "checkpoints"

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What are the two main types of cancer?

benign and malignant

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Describe benign cancer.

non-invasive, usually not deadly, cured by the removal of the tumor

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Describe malignant cancer.

invasive; grows between cells and destroys the tissue; normally treated with radiation, chemotherapy, or surgery

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What are the three parts of the cell theory?

all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit of life, and new cells are made from pre-existing cells

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What are the three main components of the cell membrane?

phospholipids, proteins, and cholesterol

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What is diffusion?

the movement of molecules from high to low concentration areas until equalibrium is reached

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How do water, carbon dioxide, and sodium move in and out of the cell?

diffusion

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What is the specfic type of diffusion that water uses as a transport method?

osmosis

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What is the extracellular matrix?

the outer protective skeleton of the cell plasma membrane in animal cells (the extra wall around the wall)

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What is the cytoskeleton?

a network of fibers and fillaments extending throughout the cytoplasm

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What does the cytoskeleton do?

it provides support, structure, mobility, and organization throughtout the cell

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What are the three parts of the signal transduction pathway?

reception, transduction, and response

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Explain the phone analogy of the signal transduction pathway

reception- the phone is ringing, you know nothing about the caller transduction- answering the phone response- hanging up the phone and doing what you were told to do

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What is a G protein receptor?

proteins that are used to convert signals from outside the cell into responses inside the cell

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What are the main types of cellular transport?

Diffusion, facillitated diffusion, and osmosis

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What is facillitated diffusion?

the movement of molecules that requires help from a transport protein; doesn't require energy

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What are the stages of the cell cycle?

interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis

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What are the phases of mitosis?

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

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What happens during interphase?

the cell grows, copies its DNA, and prepares for cell division

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What happens during mitosis?

the nucleus of the cell divides

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What happens during cytokinesis?

the cytoplasm divides and daughter cells form

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Where do proteins go to be packaged?

golgi apparatus

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Where do proteins go to be shipped out of the cell?

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

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