Bio: EXAM III STUDY GUIDE

studied byStudied by 72 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

DHT

1 / 113

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

114 Terms

1

DHT

________ (Dihydrotestosterone) is the hormone that produces the development of the genitals, while testosterone is the hormone for sperm development and the penis.

New cards
2

Macrophages

________- same as monocytes but belong in blood vs monocytes that are in the tissues.

New cards
3

Basophils

________- makes the allergic response (coughing, sneezing, etc)

New cards
4

stem cells

________: what they do for the developing embryo and how they are used in science.

New cards
5

Fever

________: abnormally high body temperature which increases metabolic rate which speeds up tissue repair and defense mechanisms.

New cards
6

Monocytes

________- defends against infection by cleaning up damaged cells.

New cards
7

Neutrophil

________- First to fight infection from bacteria and some fungi.

New cards
8

Tetrads

________ are pairs of homologous chromosomes that remain close to one another until they are pulled apart in anaphase 1.

New cards
9

No ________ occurs between meiosis I and meiosis II.

DNA replication

New cards
10

Inflammation

________: occurs when tissue is damaged; creates heat, swelling, and pain.

New cards
11

Morphogenesis

________: process of changing into a fetus.

New cards
12

Type O blood

________ is the universal donor

New cards
13

Type AB blood

_____ is the universal receiver

New cards
14

blood type A…

has antigen A, antibody anti-B, donor can receive A &O

New cards
15

blood type B…

has antigen B, antibody anti-A, donor can receive B &O

New cards
16

blood type AB…

has antigen A&B, no antibodies produced , donor can receive A, B, AB, O

New cards
17

blood type O…

has no antigen, antibodies anti-B & anti-A, donor can receive O

New cards
18

environmental stressors

Role: to provide challenges to ________ such as competitors, virus, and pathogens.

New cards
19

Differentiation

________: process where cells become specialized.

New cards
20

Poly

________ genic inheritance: phenotypes that are influenced by many genes; isnt exact copy of parents genes.

New cards
21

Antibodies

proteins that bind with antigen to neutralize it.

New cards
22

Trace the pathway of sperm through the male reproductive system and the role of the glands that produce semen.

Testes -> epididymis->ductus (vas) deferens-> ejaculatory duct -> prostatic urethra -> penis

New cards
23

Corpus luteum

________ degenerates after 12 days if fertilization doesn't occur.

New cards
24

Nutrients

________ and waste diffuse down concentration gradient between fetus and mother.

New cards
25

Meiosis

how sex cells are created

New cards
26

stages of meiosis

interphase, prophase, pro metaphase, metaphase, telophase, interphase II, prophase II, prometaphase II, metaphase II, telophase II, cytokinesis

New cards
27

Eosinophils

________ eat parasites, or invaders that are too big for other white blood cells.

New cards
28

Mitosis

how nucleus in cell divides to create identical DNA

New cards
29

stages of mitosis

interphase, prophase, pro metaphase, metaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

New cards
30

Are seen in either the male or the female of a species, but not both, in sexually reproducing organisms.

wild extravagances are seen as attractions to the opposite sex

New cards
31

Sweat secretes dermcidin, which is an ___

antimicrobial peptide; effective against harmful bacteria and fungi.

New cards
32

Cleavage

series of cell divisions without cell growth or differentiation during first four days of following fertilization.

New cards
33

Vesicle

________ contains lysosomes, which fuses w /bacteria (digestive system)

New cards
34

First level of immune system defense

physical and chemical barriers

New cards
35

Second level of immune system defense

nonspecific defense

New cards
36

Non-specific defense

doesn’t target specific pathogens; attacks anything foreign to body

New cards
37

third level of immune system defense

specific defense

New cards
38

Specific Defense

B-cells and T-cells; attacks certain pathogens

New cards
39

Phagocytes

white blood cells that destroy foreign cells

New cards
40

B cells

white blood cells from bone marrow and create antibodies

New cards
41

T cells

fighter/killer/destroyer cells

New cards
42

Neutrophil

First to fight infection from bacteria and some fungi

New cards
43

Macrophages

same as monocytes but belong in blood

New cards
44

Eosinophils

Identify & destroy parasites, cancer cells

New cards
45

Monocytes

defends against infection by cleaning up damaged cells

New cards
46

Basophils

makes the allergic response (coughing, sneezing etc.)

New cards
47

Lymphocytes

T Cells, Killer cells and B cells protect the body from viral infections

New cards
48

Levels of pH (on skin) that are hostile for microorganisms

level 5-6 pH

New cards
49

Complement system

plasma proteins that activate only in presence of infection

New cards
50

Inflammation

occurs when tissue is damaged; creates heat, swelling, and pain

New cards
51

Fever

abnormally high body temperature which increases metabolic rate which speeds up tissue repair and defense mechanisms

New cards
52

Lymphatic system

helps maintain blood volume and interstitial fluid volume in the cardiovascular system; also protects body from diseases

New cards
53

lymphatic capillaries

carries lymph (fluid which carries white blood cells, proteins, fats, and sometimes bacteria and virus) to all parts of body

New cards
54

Lymph nodes

remove cellular debris, abnormal cells, and microorganisms

New cards
55

Thymus gland

contains lymphocytes and epithelial cells

New cards
56

Tonsils

lymphatic tissue in throat

New cards
57

Spleen

(1) controls quality of circulating red blood cells by removing bad ones (2) fights infections

New cards
58

Antigen

generally part of bacteria and fungi; large proteins or polysaccharides

New cards
59

Antibodies

proteins that bind w/ antigen to neutralize it

New cards
60

Ultimate goal of reproduction

get sperm to fertilize egg

New cards
61

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

stimulates production of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); is in the hypothalamus

New cards
62

Menstrual cycle

consists of ovarian cycle and uterine cycle

New cards
63

Ovarian cycle

regular pattern of growth, maturation, and release of oocytes (immature eggs)

New cards
64

Uterine cycle

series of structural and functional changes that happen to prepare the body for pregnancy

New cards
65

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)

transmitted through sexual contact, gential, oral-genital, or anal-genital

New cards
66

Example of STDs

chlamydia, AIDS, Hepatitis B

New cards
67

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

infections that have not yet developed into diseases, and can include bacteria, viruses, or parasites

New cards
68

Example of STIs

pubic lice, syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes

New cards
69

Cleavage

series of cell divisions without cell growth or differentiation during first four days of following fertilization

New cards
70

Differentiation

process where cells become specialized

New cards
71

Morphogenesis

process of changing into a fetus

New cards
72

Days 1-3 of pregnancy

conception (fertilization of egg, aka zygote) in oviduct

New cards
73

Day 4 of pregnancy

morula (32 identical cells resulted from cleavage)

New cards
74

Days 5-7 of pregnancy

morula turns to blastocyst, implants in uterine wall

New cards
75

Week 2 of pregnancy

blastocyst fills w/ amniotic fluid (for wase and nutrient exchange)

New cards
76

Embryo stage

organs and systems established but not fully functional

New cards
77

Week 3 of pregnancy

brain and spinal cord in the making and so are muscles, bones, and skin (mesoderm)

New cards
78

Week 4 of pregnancy

heart develops, head takes shape, eyes positioned, limb nubs and tail

New cards
79

Weeks 5-8 of pregnancy

general vertebrae of human forming

New cards
80

Week 6 of pregnancy

genitalia begin developing (XX, XY)

New cards
81

Month 3 (first trimester over) of pregnancy

kidenys, limbs, bones/teeth, spleen, liver formed and functioning

New cards
82

Month 4 of pregnancy

liver and bone marrow create red blood cells and face almost in final form

New cards
83

Months 5 of pregnancy

nervous system ans skeletal muscles formed enough for fetus to move

New cards
84

Month 6 (end of second trimester) of pregnancy

lungs surfactant (phospholipids and proteins prevent collapsing) and hear external sounds

New cards
85

Months 7-9 of pregnancy

rapid growth and maturation

New cards
86

Endoderm

Innermost Cell Layer; forms digestive and respiratory tract

New cards
87

Ectoderm

Outer Layer; forms skin, nervous system, and parts of face/neck

New cards
88

Mesoderm

Middle Layer; forms muscle, blood vessel, connective tissues and beginning of bones

New cards
89

Placenta

Massive filter for diffusion for baby

New cards
90

Transcription

the process of creating a coded message of one gene (a segment in DNA that has the code/recipe for protein(s)) that can be carried out of nucleus

New cards
91

Translation

converting the coded message into proteins useful for cell

New cards
92

Replication

the process of copying the cell’s DNA prior to cell division

New cards
93

Somatic cells ( __ chromosomes) are reproductive cells from humans

46

New cards
94

Gamete cells ( __ chromosomes) are reproductive cells from plants or animals

23

New cards
95

Meiosis

4 haploid cells

New cards
96

Similarities between meiosis and mitosis

PPMAT 1st phase has similar way of forming cells

New cards
97

Differences between meiosis and mitosis

mitosis produces 2 daughter cells while meiosis produces 4 daughter cells

New cards
98

Genes

recipes for specific proteins, section of DNA

New cards
99

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid,  made of nucleotides composed of one sugar, one phosphate, and one nitrogenous base

New cards
100

alleles

different variations of a gene

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 34 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 59 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 95 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 56 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard96 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard64 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard100 terms
studied byStudied by 359 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(11)
flashcards Flashcard98 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)