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What are the 2 types of glands?
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Endocrine and Exocrine
What does the Endocrine gland do?
It's ductless and secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream (Remember, Endo has d so it's direct)
What does Exocrine gland do?
Secretions are collected in free surface made out of epithelium. They form ducts (pathways to a surface) and send secretions using that duct.
What are the 3 types of Exocrine Glands
Merocine, Apocrine, Holocrine.
What is a merocrine gland?
A vesicle releasing its contents
What is Apocrine Gland?
pinched off portions of cells
What is Holocrine Gland?
Whole cell is breaking and forming new cells.
What are the 8 endocrine glands?
Adrenal Gland, Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland, Pancreas, Pineal Gland, Thymus, Thyroid & Parathyroid, Reproductive organs.
(Remember using happpttr)
Where are Adrenal Gland located?
Adrenal Glands are located on top of kidneys
What are two types of Adrenal Gland?
Cortex (c for covering, so cortex = outer layer) and Medulla (m for middle so medulla = middle layer)
What are the 3 major hormones Cortex release?
Glucocorticoids (ex: cortisol), Androgens & Estrogens and Aldosterone.
(Remembering using CAAG): C- cortex a - androgens & estrogens a - aldosterone g - glucocorticoids
What does Glucocorticoids do?
Increases protein and fat breakdown; maintains sugar balance; inhibits the immune response. Example: Cortisol
What does Androgens & Estrogens do?
Causes development of some secondary sex characteristics in females
What does aldosterone do?
Salt balance / water reabsorption in the blood
Where is medulla located in adrenal glands?
Inner portion of the gland
What are the major hormones released by medulla?
Epinephrine (adrenaline) and Norepinephrine (nonadrenaline)
(Remember using MEN M - Medulla E - Epinephrine N - Norepinephrine)
What does Epinephrine do?
Increases heart rate, cardiac output and blood flow to skeletal muscles
What does norepinephrine do?
Reduces blood flow to skin and visceral organs; breakdown of glycogen to glucose
where is hypothalamus located?
Diencephalon of the brain.
What does a hypothalamus do?
Secretes only "releasing" (ex: GHRN) or "inhibiting" (GHIH) hormones. It basically tells glands what to do Hormone "stop light"
Where is pituitary gland located and what it's function?
located below hypothalamus and secretes 9 major hormones
What are the 2 portions of pituitary gland?
Posterior and Anterior
What are Posterior pituitary gland location and 2 major hormones name
Located closer to the brainstem Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) and Oxytocin
______ is the extension of hypothalamus
Posterior Pituitary Gland
What does Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) do?
increases water reabsorption in kidney
What does Oxytocin do?
Increases uterine contraction & milk expulsion in mammary glands; unclear function in males
where is anterior pitutary located and what are it's major hormones
Located closer to frontal lobe Thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH) and Growth Hormone (GH)
What does Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) do?
Causes the secretion of thyroid hormones T3 and T4
what does Growth Hormone (GH) do?
Increases growth in tissues
Where is pancreas located?
Pancreas are located between the stomach and the small intestine
Pancreas is _____ because it secretes pancreatic juice to the small intestine & also ______ as it secretes hormones to circulatory system
exocrine and endocrine
What are the two major hormones of pancreas?
Insulin and Glucagon
What does insulin do?
increases cell's uptake of glucose & amino acids from the blood. This decreases blood glucose levels
What does Glucagon do?
Increases breakdown of glycogen and release of glucose into blood stream
Where is Pineal Gland located and it's major hormone?
Located in posterior portion of diencephalon Major hormone is melatonin
What is the function of melatonin?
Inhibits GnRH thus inhibits reproduction; regulates sleep-wake cycles; may also help you fall asleep.
Where is Thymus located and what is it's major hormone?
Located about heart and major hormone is Thymosin
What does Thymosin do?
it develops immune system and T-cells
Where is Thyroid located and what is it's major hormone?
Located at top of trachea. Major hormones are T3 & T4 and Calcitonin.
What does T3 & T4 do?
increases metabolic rate
What does Calcitonin do?
decreases breakdown of bone tissue (decreases Calcium in blood)
Where is parathyroid located and it's major hormone?
Embedded in the posterior of thyroid gland Major Hormone is Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
What does Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) do?
increases breakdown of bone tissue (increases calcium in blood)
What are the two types of reproductive organs?
Testis and Ovaries
Where is testis located and what is it's major hormone?
Located outside the body cavity in the scrotum (helps with temperature regulation)
Major hormone is testosterone
What does testosterone do?
Spermatogenesis; maintains functional reproductive organs
What are ovaries located and major hormone?
Located in the abdomen; Major hormone is Estrogen and Progesterone
What does Estrogen do?
Uterine and mammary gland production
What does progesterone do?
secondary sex characteristics; regulates menstrual cycle
The nervous system uses _____ communication while the endocrine system uses _____ communication.
Electrical & chemical