Psychobiology Exam 1

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action potential

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action potential

a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon Starts at the axon hilloks is all of nothing

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Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

compound used by cells to store and release energy

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Anion

A negatively charged ion

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anterograde transport

movement down the axon Away from soma (new proteins) *A and A (away and anterograde)

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Astrocyte

a glial cell that provides physical support, transports nutrients, increases blood flow, helps form synapses

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Autonomic Nervous System

A part of the peripheral nervous system that provides the main neural connections to the internal organs. consist of the Parasympathetic and Sympathetic nervous system

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autoreceptors

signal the presynaptic neuron to stop releasing the neurotransmitter

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Axon

A single extension from the nerve cell that carries the electrical signal from the cell body toward axon terminals. Is in the conduction zone

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Axon Hillock

the cone-shaped area on the cell body from which the axon originates

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Axon Terminal

the end of an axon or axon collateral, which forms a synapse on a neuron or other target cell

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behavioral intervention

-manipulating the behavior may affect the body and/or the brain -Independent variable: Behavior -Dependent variable: body/brain changes

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brain

The mass of nerve tissue that is the main control center of the nervous system

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Calcium

-Ca2+ -equilibrium potential= +120 mV -is Cations

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Cations

positively charged ions

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cell body (soma)

-is part of the Integration Zone

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Central Nervous System (CNS)

consists of the brain and spinal cord

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c-fos

help visualize neuronal activity of cells

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Chloride (Cl)

-equilibrium potential is -60 mV -is an Anions

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Concentration gradient

Movement from areas of high to low concentration

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correlational studies

a research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them or assign causation between them

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Dendrite

an extension of the cell body that receives information from other neurons part of the input zone

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Diffusion

transmitter substance floats away from the synapse

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Dualism

mind and body are separate

  • dual = two

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Dynactin protein

transports back to soma in retrograde transport

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electrostatic pressure

-Movement towards oppositely charged areas -like charges repel and opposites attract

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enzymatic degradation

the transmitter action is deactivated by an enzyme

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equilibrium potential

The point at which the movement of ions across the cell membrane Is Balanced

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EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential)

generated by depolarization -Some ionotropic receptors allow Sodium to pass thru.

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Exocytosis

Ca2+ entry causes the synaptic vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane and release the neurotransmitter molecules into the synaptic cleft

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falling phase

-Is a refractory period -Potassium rushes out of the cell via voltage-gated potassium channels causing the membrane potential to become more negative

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free nerve endings

respond to pain and temperature

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glial cells

provide support and nutrients to neurons.

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Golgi body

Packaging proteins in soma

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Golgi stain

  • cell body stain -Only highlights certain cells

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G protein

a protein coupled to a metabotropic receptor; activates a "second messenger" then communicates to areas within the cell to: -open or close an ion channel in the membrane -alter the production of proteins -activate a gene in the nucleus via activation of transcription factors.

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graded potential

A stimulus will cause small changes in the membrane potential. The greater the stimulus, the greater the response (can vary in size)

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Hyperpolarized phase

  • from -60mV to-70mV

  • Relative Refractory Period -potassium leaves the cell making it more negative

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Immunocytochemistry

helps identify structure/proteins

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IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential)

-post synaptic hyperpolarizations because they decrease the likelihood that the neuron will fire -Some ionotropic receptors allow Potassium or Chloride to pass thru.

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Intracellular electrode

placed into an intracellular fluid to measure voltage

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Ion

atoms or molecules with a (+) or (-) charge

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Ion Channels

channel proteins that transport ions

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Ion distribution

Determined by membrane pores (selective, open, closed), and types of ions (K ions pass-through more easily than Na or Ca)

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Kinesin protein

moves vesicle across the microtubule in anterograde transport

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levels of analysis

include somatic, behavior, and correlational intervention

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Lysosome

degrades proteins found in cell body

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Merkel's disks

respond to isolated points

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metabotropic receptors

receptors that act through a second messenger system

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Microfilaments

"bones" of the neuron

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Mitochondira

provides stored energy in the form of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

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Monism

The mind is what your brain does

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Motor Neuron

A neuron that transmits neural messages to muscles or glands.

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Myelination

The fatty insulation around an axon, formed by glial cells. This sheath boosts the speed at which nerve impulses are conducted.

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Neurotransmitter

chemical released by neurons that may, upon binding to receptors of neurons or effector cells, stimulate or inhibit them

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Neurofilaments

"bones" of the neuron

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Neuron

transmit an electrochemical signal

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Neuron doctrine

Nervous system is made up of individual cells that are structurally, metabolically and functionally independent.

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Oligodendrocyte

A type of glial cell that forms myelin in the CNS -myelinate multiple axon

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Nissil stain

stains organelles

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parasympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy Activated during non stressful conditions Rest and restore

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Pacinian corpuscles

respond to deep pressure and vibration

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Postsynaptic Membrane

The specialized membrane on the surface of the cell that receives information by responding to neurotransmitter from a presynaptic neuron.

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Passive ion channels

-Are Ion channels that are always open -They do not require energy (no ATP is needed)

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periphernal nervous system (PNS)

Made up of nerve tissue located outside the brain and spinal cord consist of Somatic and autonomic nervous system

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Presynaptic Membrane

the specialized membrane of the axon terminal of the neuron that transmits information by releasing neurotransmitter

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Postsynaptic neuron

the neuron on the receiving end of the synapse

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Potassium (K+)

-is Cation

  • equilibrium potential is -90 mV

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Presynaptic neuron

neuron that sends the signal

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Protein synthesis

-is an important function in SOMA -Endoplasmic reticulum and Ribosome are protein synthesis

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Proteins

are made up of one or more polypeptide that is twisted and folded into a unique shape

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Reductionism

the reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study

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Reference electrode

the electrode placed in extracellular fluid to measure voltage

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Relative refractory period

whena neuron can generate another action potential but only by a stronger than normal stimulus

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Resting membrane potential

The neuron is more negative inside relative to the outside of the cell (-60 mV)

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Reuptake

a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron

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ribosomes

translate genetic instructions from nucleus into specialized proteins needed for operation of a neuron

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Ruffini corpuscles

detect stretch

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Santiago Ramon Y Cajal

A pioneer in neuroscience that first demonstrated that the cells in the nervous system are Seperate and that they did not merge into each other as previously believed.

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Schwann cells

a type of glial cell that forms myelin in the peripheral nervous system -myelinate one axon -Schw-ONE

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Sodium (Na+)

-equilibrium potential is 55 mV -is Cations

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Sodium/Potassium pump

-an active mechanism which excludes 3 Na+ ions for every 2 K+ ions taken into the cell -Requires energy supplied by adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

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Somatic intervention

-manipulating the body and/or the brain may affect behavior -Alteration of a structure or function to see how behavior is altered -Independent variable: the structure or function that is being altered -Dependent variable: the response that is measured, such as a behavior

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Somatic nervous system

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles

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spatial summation

Integration by a postsynaptic neuron of inputs (EPSPs and IPSPs) from multiple sources. -multiple signals go off creating an action potential

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Sympathetic nervous system

-"Fight or flee -Activated during arousal and stressful periods

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Synapse

the cellular location at which information is transmitted from a neuron to another cell

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Synaptic cleft

a gap into which neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal

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Acetylcholine

A neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system

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temporal summation

Summation by a postsynaptic cell of input (EPSPs or IPSPs) from a single source over time. -a single signal repreats one after the other creating an action potential

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Terminal button

referred to as the output zone

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transcription

DNA being copied to RNA in the nucleus

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translation

Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced

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Transmitter-gated ion channels

-is Ionotropic -are composed of four or five subunits that have a pore in the middle that open quickly by the direct action of a neurotransmitter. -Allow the passage of ions between the inside and outside of the cell. -There are multiple subtypes that can either have an excitatory or inhibitory effect on the postsynaptic neuron.

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94

unmyelinated axons

Sodium rushing in via voltage-gated sodium channels and depolarizes the membrane, which triggers the opening ofadjacent voltage-gated s odium channels. -This process continues until the action potential reaches the terminal button.

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95

Voltage -gated calcium channels

A membrane protein forming a pore that is permeable to Ca2+ ions and gated by depolarization of the membrane.

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Voltage-gated potassium channels

Allow K+ to flow out of the cell, moving the potential back towards the negative equilibrium potential of potassium.

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Voltage-gated sodium channels

-are present at the axon hillock -At resting membrane potential (RMP, -60 mV), they are closed

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98

Norepinephrine

A neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system, involved in arousal.

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99

retrograde transport

movement up the axon toward the soma (communicates metabolic needs and waste material) *R and R (Return and Retrograde)

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