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History of Architecture

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AQE 1

298 Terms

1

History of Architecture

Discusses the significant events in the field of architecture in relation to a particular group of people, country, or period.

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2

Geographical

The way the people live and the development of their civilization depends upon the characteristic features of the land.

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3

Geological

Earth's physical structure and substance affects the development architectural style in each country.

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4

Climate

This effect the utilization of materials present in a certain area. Can make or break any architectural styles.

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5

Religion

Usually present in any civilization and most of the time a center of civilization

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6

Social and Political

Connotes the development of human social need throughout the human existence.

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7

Sir Banister Fletcher

"The time spent in the study of the architecture of the past will, therefore, never be regretted, for every ruin tells of the history of other days, and enables the character and conditions of men of past periods to be conjured up, thus opening wide to all students and lovers of old buildings the enjoyment of contemplating forms which will then have for them a meaning and a charm."

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8

Sir Banister Fletcher

English Architect and Historian in the 1800s

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9

CIVILIZATION SOCIETY CULTURE STYLE EXPRESSION

Shelter Needs + Social Needs = Development in Architecture thus gives birth to:

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10

Caves

Earliest form of human shelter discovered in:

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11

Pleistocene Period

Earliest cave dwellers was during the:

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12

Neolithic Period

Trade and cultural contact started existing in the Philippines during the:

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13

Tabon Cave Complex

Most antiquated cave.

Discovered in Lipuun Point.

Located on a raised mass of limestone.

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14

Angono Petroglyphs Rockshelter

A shallow rock shelter about 63 m wide, 8 m deep.

Discovered by Carlos "Botong" Francisco

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15

Tau't Batu

Southern Palawan

Following a seasonal fluctuation in the weather, the people follow a nomad way of life.

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16

datag

a basic sleeping platform

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17

Idjang

a triangular shaped hill made to act like a fortress of the European countries.

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18

Balangay, Boat House

Built entirely out of wood.

Used for seafaring by the ancient kingdom of Butuan.

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19

barangay

derived from blangay due to its size that can accommodate multiple house hold.

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20

Ephemeral

means lasting for a very short time

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21

Ephemeral Architecture

is an ancient part of our architectural heritage, stretching back to the vernacular works of nomadic cultures.

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22

Pinanahang

botanic sheild of the Agta of Palanan.

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23

Hawong

It is usually constructed with a ridge pole supported by forked stakes or limbs. It forms two sloping sides with one or both end open

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24

Dait-Dait

Mamanua use a simple windscreen when hunting.

built with wild banana, coconut fronds or grass usually lashed out with rattan.

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25

Arboreal

means living in trees.

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26

Arboreal Shelter

Tree houses in the PH, usually found in areas where violent intertribal conflicts or nocturnal raids are frequent

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27

aligang

nocturnal abode

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28

Rice Terraces

Considered as Mega structure in Prehistoric period.

Found in the cordillera region at an altitude of anywhere from 500-1600 m.

used for cultivation of taro and other crops

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29

Vernacular

means "native"

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30

Vernacular Architecture

is about exemplifies the commonest building techniques based on the forms and materials of a particular historical period, region, or group of people.

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31

Vernacular Architecture

Broadly applied to denote indigenous, pock, tribal, ethnic/traditional architecture found among the different ethnolinguistic.

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32

Ethnolinguistic

Refers to the grammar, syntax, diction in expressing buildings in a locale.

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33

Ivatan House

This are the dwelling that are present in every idjang.

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34

Lagatiti

Looks like a combination of a lean-to and a typical thatched house.

Surrounded by cogon walls on the three sides.

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35

Rahaung

characterized by an a-frame supported by wood post and narrow wooden platforms

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36

Jinjin

an improvement of rahaung incorporated with walls made of cogon.

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37

Nirindin

type of dwelling that is present only in the island of Itbayat.

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38

Mayhurahed

an improvement of Nirindin type of dwelling.

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39

Binuron

a traditional Isneg house

made of bamboo shingles and resembled like an inverted boat.

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40

Binayon

a traditional Kalinga house

main feature is its octagonal plan

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41

Fay-u

The traditional Bontoc house for the affluent.

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42

Katyufong

Traditional Bontoc house designated for the poor.

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43

Kol-lob / katyufong.

Traditional Bontoc residence of widows or unmarried old women; can also be called

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44

Ba-le

Also called as Fale is a traditional Ifugao house for the affluent.

one of the first pre-fabricated house in vernacular dwelling in Cordillera.

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45

Binangiyan

traditional Kankanai house for the wealthy.

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46

Bahay Kubo

Traditional lowland dwelling of northern and central regions.

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47

Bahay Kubo

described as "The passively-cooled house"

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48

Ati's House

Common type of dwelling in Iloilo, Capiz and Guimaras islands. Typically made from round timber post & walls are made of binanlak nga bolo (small bamboos).

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49

Lepa

Also known as lipa or lepalepa, is an indigenous ships of Sama-Bajau, indigenous people in Sulu archipelago.

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50

Luma

Houses are built separately in staggard pattern but connected the neighborhood thru Jambatan (Footbridge)

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51

Samal House

elevated rectangular one-room structures near the coastal waters of Southern Mindanao, Palawan, Zamboanga, and Sulu archipelago.

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52

Bay Sinug

traditional house of the Tausog in the Southern Philippines.

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53

Lumah

Traditional house of the Yakans

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54

Torogan

Dwelling symbol of a high social status in a traditional Maranao house which serves as an ancestral residence of the Datu and his extended family

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55

Austronesian Ethnicity

closely related to the indigenous people of Taiwan who started to migrate to the Philippines and from the Philippines to Indonesia, Malaysia, Micronesia, as far as Polynesia and Madacascar

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56

Austronesian Dwelling

Depicted by pile construction on stilts, raised living floor & a pitch roof w/ extended ridges.

Materials are usually wood and bamboo, palm leaves, grass thatch, and plant fibers.

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57

Malayan Ethnicity

The Asian spice trade during the Pre-European Era marks the route of Traders in Southeast Asia including Taiwan and main land China.

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58

South Asian style

Religion played a big role in the development of architectural design in this region.

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59

Colonialism

interaction between colonizer and the colonized

imposition of political control of powerful states over weaker ones

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60

GOD,GOLD and GLORY

motivations of the Spain in colonizing the Philippines

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61

Cebu

Country's oldest settlement that retains much of the flavour of its long Spanish heritage.

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62

Reducción

This was enforced to make the administration and collection of taxes easier.

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63

Encomienda system

a grant by the crown to specific official with specified number of "Indios" (subject) living in a particular area.

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64

System of cities and towns

institution of hierarchical settlement system

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65

Cuadricula

system of streets and blocks laid out in a grid pattern, with uniform precision

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66

Colonial infrastructures

The introduction of building typologies and construction technology through colonial infrastructure.

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67

The Law of the Indies

Colonial cities were built based in this code.

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68

munisipyo

casa real / town hall

one of the civic buildings adjacent to the plaza that serves as the resident-office of the designated town official who has an administrative jurisdiction over a town or city.

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69

eskinita

alley;

a narrow road that provides access to interior lots for building s.

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70

simbahan

iglesia; church

an edifice or place of Christian worship

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71

Plaza Complex

layout and placement of both civic and ecclesiastical buildings around the central plaza based on Ordenanza of 1573.

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72

traza

the gridiron plan that defines the layout of the town or city.

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73

pangunahing kalsada

calle real; main road

wide or spacious flat surface to transport goods and acts as a way of travel for people.

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74

kalsada

calzada; road

the wide or spacious road between buildings and houses connected to the main road.

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75

plasa

plaza;

the wide open space bounded by roadas and adjacent to the civic and ecclesiastical buildings of a town.

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76

obelisko

obelisco; obelisk

a slender stone with square base that tapers as it rises and terminates with a pyramidal form at its apex.

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77

bahay

casa; house

the dwelling place of a family.

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78

hakuman / korte

casa tribunal; courthouse

multi-use civic building with meeting halls for municipal guilds, courtroom and detention for law offenders, and temporary shelter for transient and wayfarers.

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79

looban or bakuran

solar; plot

a small area of land that is or could be used for a particular purpose.

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80

lindero

lot boundary;

the legally defined and recorded boundaries of a property or parcel of land.

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81

Basilica del Santo Niño

founded by Fray Andres de Urdaneta and Fray Diego de Herrera in 1565 . It is built on the spot where the image of Santo Nino de Cebu

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82

Fuerte de San pedro

a military defense structure in Cebu built by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first governor of the captaincy general of the Philippines.

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83

Arquitectura Mestiza

new hybrid type of construction was invented to avoid the consequences of both fire and the earthquake

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84

Intramuros

Spanish word that means "the walled city"

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85

Intramuros, Manila

It's wall is 14 m thick and 7.6m above the moat that surrounds it. It has dungeon, watchtower and entry was through seven gates. Boarded by manila bay and Pasig river.

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86

Extramuros

pertained to villages outside the walls became pueblos

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87

Parian

Chinese trading merchants and crafts men live here.

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88

Sangleyes

Chinese trading merchants and crafts men.

Chinese people.

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89

The Japanese Dilao

supplies the Spanish with goods and exotic items not obtainable

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90

Churches

Colonial Churches in the Philippines are considered as National Cultural Treasures

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91

Fortresses

introduced in the Island to find protection from Pirates and Muslim riders.

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92

Institutional Buildings

Establishing a systematize Government is one of the influence of the Spaniards

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93

Educational and Scientific Buildings

various religious orders fulfilled the missionary tasks of bringing education, healthcare, and social welfare to the indigenous subjects

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94

Industrial Buildings

Due to the Hispanic urban program, living standards were elevated through urban infrastructure and public works.

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95

Commercial Buildings

Chinese and traders started to settle near Intramuros to secure a better location for their trading business.

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96

Domestic Structures

The evolution of dwellings in the Philippines during the Spanish era depends on the social status of the Mestizo and Indio.

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97

eskwela

school;

in a church complex, it is a building intended for educational studies especially of kids.

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98

baptiseryo

an independent structure or a space near the church's entrance, which is indicated for baptism.

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99

kumbento

convent:

a building either attached or beside a church that serves as a residence of the parish priest.

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100

patyo ng simbahan

plaza iglesia; church plaza

huge open space in front of the church intended for religious activities or ceremonies.

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