MUSCULAR SYSTEM

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Contractility

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218 Terms

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Contractility

Unique function of muscle wherein it has the ability to move which is an essential activity of the living human body.

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Responsible for all body movement

Muscles

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Attached to the bones of the skeleton

Skeletal muscles

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__________ is an skeletal muscle because under a microscope they show crossbandings of alternating light and dark bands running perpendicular to the length of the muscle

Striped or striated

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name given to a band of connective tissue that envelops, separates, or binds muscles or groups of muscle

Fascia

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A sheath of dense, irregular connective tissue wrapping each muscle. Allows a muscle to contract and move powerfully while maintaining its structural integrity

Epimysium

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A middle layer of connective tissue covering each fascicles (muscle fibers organized into bundles)

Perimysium

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A thin connective tissue layer of collagen and reticular fibers covering each muscle fiber

Endomysium

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Plays a role in transferring force produced by the muscle fibers to the tendons

Endomysium

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10

allows for production of the large amounts of proteins and enzymes needed for maintaining its normal function

Multiple nuclei

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specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum stores, releases, and retrieves calcium ions

sarcoplasmic reticulum

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12

The plasma membrane of muscle fibers

Sarcolemma

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Proteins that run the length of the cell and contain sarcomeres connected in series

Myofibrils

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The smallest functional unit of a skeletal muscle fiber

Sarcomere

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Defined as the region of a myofibril contained between two cytoskeleton structures called

Z-doscs

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Composed of the myosin, which span the center of the sarcomere extending toward the Z-discs

A band

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Where the thick filaments are anchored at the middle of the sarcomere

M-line

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Light region contain thin actin filaments anchored at the Z-discs

I band

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In the middle of the A band is a little lighter, because the thin filaments do not extend into this region.

Hone

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Composed of two filamentous actin chains wherein its associated with the regulatory proteins, troponin and tropomyosin

Thin filaments

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Contains a myosin binding site

Globular actin monomer

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22

Thick myofilaments

Composed of myosin protein complexes. Its globular head contains an actin-binding site and a binding site for the high energy molecule ATP

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Titin

A large protein anchored at the M-line; helps align the thick filament and adds an elastic element to the sarcomere

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The moveable end of the muscle that attaches to the bone being pulled

Insertion

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The end of the muscle attached to a fixed (stabilized) bone

Origin

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26

The principal muscle involved among a number of muscles involved in an action

Prime mover

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A muscle with the opposite action of the prime mover

Antagonist

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helps steady movement or stabilize joint activity; muscle that assists the prime mover

Synergists

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Also called visceral muscle; cells are small and spindle shaped, there is only one nucleus, located at the center of the cell

smooth muscles

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Found only in the heart

Cardiac muscles

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The membranes of adjacent cells are fused at places called

Intercalated discs

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Special circular muscles in the openings between the esophagus and stomach, and the stomach and small intestine

Sphincter muscles or dilator muscles

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Attached to the skeleton and also located in the wall of the pharynx and esophagus

Location of skeletal muscle

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34

Have long, cylindrical, and multinucleated, and contains alternating light and dark striations. Nuclei located at edge of fiber

Structure of skeletal muscle

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35

Contractions occur voluntarily and may be rapid and forceful. Contractions stabilize the joints

Function of skeletal muscle

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Located in the walls of tubular structures and hollow organs such as in the digestive tract, urinary bladder, and blood vessels

Location of Smooth muscle

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Long and spindle shaped, with no striations

Structure of Smooth muscle

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Contractions occur involuntarily and are rhythmic and slow

Function of smooth muscle

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Located in the heart

Location of cardiac muscle

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Short, branching fibers with a centrally located nucleus; striations not distinct

Structure of cardiac muscle

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Contractions occur involuntarily and are rhythmic and automatic

Function of cardiac muscle

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42

Which is the ability of the cells to shorten and generate force

Contractility

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Can change their electrical states and send an action potential along the entire length of the plasma membrane

Excitability or irritability

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Ability to stretch and extend beyond the resting length of the cells

Extensibility

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Allows muscle to recoil back to its original length

Elasticity

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Name basis of Frontalis

Location (forehead)

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Name basis of gluteus maximus

Size (largest muscle in buttock)

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Name basis of External abdominal oblique

Direction of fibers (edge of the lower rib cage)

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Name basis of Biceps

Number of origins (two-headed muscles in humerus)

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Name basis of Sternocleidomastoid

Location of origin and insertion (origin in sternum and clavicle; insertion is the mastoid process of the temporal bone)

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Name basis of Flexor carpi ulnaris

Action flexor (flexes the wrist)

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Name basis of Extensor carpi ulnaris

Extensor (extends the wrist)

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Name basis of Depressor anguli oris

Depressor

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To; toward

Ad

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Away from

Ab

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Under

Sub

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Something that moves

Ductor

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Against

Anti

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On top of

Epi

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To the side of

Apo

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Longest

Longissimus

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Long

Longus

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Short

Brevis

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Large

Maximus

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Medium

Medius

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Tiny, little

Minimus

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Straight

Rectus

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One

Uni

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Two

Bi/di

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Three

Tri

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Four

Quad

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Outside

Externus

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Inside

Internus

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largest

Maximus/magnus

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Smallest

Minimus

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Intermediate in size

Medius

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Larger

Major

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Smaller

Minor

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Shortest

Brevis

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Longest

Longus

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Great or huge

Vastus

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Shaped like a deltoid

Trapezius

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Refers to triangular shaped muscle that sits on top of the shoulder

Deltoid

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root word is “serrare,” which means saw

Serratus

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French word for flat

Platysma

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Diamond shaped

Rhomboid

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Square or four sided

Quadratus

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Round or cylindrical shaped

Teres

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Straight or erect, parallel to the midline

Rectus

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90

Transverse or perpendicular to the midline

Transversus

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Slanted or diagonal to the midline

Oblique

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A name given to ringlike muscles that encircle and orifice and that may form a constricting passage

Orbicularis, sphincter

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93

Decrease the angle at a joint

Flexor

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94

Muscles that counter flexors and increase the angle at a joint

Extensors

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95

Turn limbs so that they face downwards or backward

Pronator

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Counters pronators turns limbs so they face upwards or forward

Supinator

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Muscles that lift things up

Levators

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98

Depresses a structure or part

Depressor

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99

Adducts or moves a part toward the midline

Adductor

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100

Abducts or moves a part away from the midline

Abductor

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