ANAT 315

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Pectoralis Major

Origin: Anterior surface of clavicle, anterior surface of sternum, external oblique aponeurosis

Insertion: lateral edge of the intertubercular groove, inferior to the greater tubercle.

Action: Adducts, flexes + medially rotates arm

Innervation: Medial + lateral pectoral nerves

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352 Terms

1

Pectoralis Major

Origin: Anterior surface of clavicle, anterior surface of sternum, external oblique aponeurosis

Insertion: lateral edge of the intertubercular groove, inferior to the greater tubercle.

Action: Adducts, flexes + medially rotates arm

Innervation: Medial + lateral pectoral nerves

<p></p>
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Pectoralis Minor

Origin: Ribs 3-5

Insertion: Coracoid process of scapula

Action: Pulls scapula down and anteriorly

Innervation: Medial pectoral nerve

<p></p>
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Subclavius

Origin: 1st Rib

Insertion: Inferior surface of clavicle

Action: Pulls down and stabilizes clavicle

Innervation: C5-C6

<p></p>
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Serratus Anterior

Origin: Surface of ribs 1-8

Insertion: Medial surface of scapula on the costal surface

Action: Protracts scapula and elevates ribs

Innervation: Long thoracic nerve

<p></p>
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Serratus Posterior Superior

Origin: C7-T3 spinous processes

Insertion: Superior borders of ribs 2-4

Action: Elevates upper ribs

Innervation: T1-T4 ventral rami

<p></p>
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Serratus Posterior Inferior

Origin: T11-L2 spinous processes

Insertion: Inferior border of ribs 9-12

Action: Depresses lower ribs

Innervation: T9-T12 anterior rami

<p></p>
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External Intercostals

Origin: Inferior border of ribs

Insertion: Superior border of rib below

Action: Elevates ribs

Breathing: Inspiration

Innervation: Intercostal nerves

<p></p>
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Internal Intercostals

Origin: Inferior border of ribs

Insertion: Superior border of rib below

Action: Lowers ribs

Breathing: Expiration

Innervation: Intercostal nerves

<p></p>
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Innermost Intercostals

Origin: Inferior border of ribs

Insertion: Superior border of rib below

Action: Lowers ribs

Breathing: Expiration

Innervation: Intercostal nerves

<p></p>
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External - medial + inferior

Internal - medial + superior

hands in pockEt - external

hands in pIts - internal

Which way do the intercostal muscle fibres point?

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Transversus Thoracis

Origin: Pleural surface of ribs 2-6 (anteriorly)

Insertion: Posterior surface of sternum, xiphoid process

Action: Lowers ribs

Breathing: Expiration

Innervation: Intercostal nerves

<p></p>
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Subcostales

Origin: Pleural surface of ribs 2-6 (posteriorly)

Insertion: Superior border of rib below

Action: Lowers ribs

Breathing: Expiration

Innervation: Intercostal nerves

<p></p>
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Diaphragm

Origin: Xiphoid process of sternum, L1-L4 vertebra, costal arch of ribs 7-12

Insertion: Central tendon of diaphragm

Action & Breathing: Contracts and compresses abdomen (inspiration); relaxes (expiration

Innervation: Phrenic nerve; C3, 4, 5 keeps diaphragm alive

<p></p>
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<p>Reference position for anatomical directional terms</p>

Reference position for anatomical directional terms

Anatomical Position

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<p>Anterior/posterior (Front half/Back half)</p>

Anterior/posterior (Front half/Back half)

Coronal/Frontal Plane

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<p>Right/left</p>

Right/left

Sagittal (Mid-Sagittal) Plane

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<p>Superior/inferior (Upper half/Lower half)</p>

Superior/inferior (Upper half/Lower half)

Transverse/Horizontal Plane

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Medial: toward the midline

Lateral: away from midline

Medial & Lateral

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Proximal: toward an attached base

Distal: away from an attached base

Proximal & Distal

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Posterior: toward the back, behind

Anterior: toward the front, in front of

Posterior & Anterior

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Superficial: toward/closer to body surface

Deep: away from body surface/toward interior of body

Superficial & Deep

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Superior: higher

Inferior: lower

Superior & Inferior

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Axial & Appendicular

The skeleton can be divided into…

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  • Bones of the skull

  • Accessory bones

  • Vertebral column

  • Thoracic cage (ribs, sternum, thoracic vertebrae)

AXIAL SKELETON

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  • Upper limbs and pectoral girdle

  • Lower limbs and pelvic girdle

APPENDICULAR SKELETON

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<p>26 bones</p><ul><li><p>24 vertebrae (7 Cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar)</p></li><li><p>Sacrum</p></li><li><p>Соссух</p></li></ul>

26 bones

  • 24 vertebrae (7 Cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar)

  • Sacrum

  • Соссух

What makes up the vertebral column?

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  • Column of support

  • Protection of spinal cord

  • Passage for nerves

  • Attachment site for muscles

Functions of the vertebral column

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Label

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Refers to a joint

Articular

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Smooth, flat surface

Facet

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Hole

Foramen

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Projection

Process

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<p>Nucleus pulposus herniates (protrudes) into vertebral canal due to tear or rupture in the annulus fibrosis</p>

Nucleus pulposus herniates (protrudes) into vertebral canal due to tear or rupture in the annulus fibrosis

How does a Herniated Disc happen?

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<p>Size: Small - fine movements</p><p>Spinous process: Bifid</p><p>Vertebral body: Oval</p><p>Other features: Transverse foramen</p>

Size: Small - fine movements

Spinous process: Bifid

Vertebral body: Oval

Other features: Transverse foramen

Cervical Vertebrae

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<p>Size: Medium</p><p>Spinous process: Downward sloping</p><p>Vertebral body: Heart</p><p>Other features: Costal facets for ribs</p>

Size: Medium

Spinous process: Downward sloping

Vertebral body: Heart

Other features: Costal facets for ribs

Thoracic Vertebrae

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<p>Size: Large - weight bearing</p><p>Spinous process: Short, stumpy</p><p>Vertebral body: Kidney</p><p>Other features: No articular facets for ribs</p>

Size: Large - weight bearing

Spinous process: Short, stumpy

Vertebral body: Kidney

Other features: No articular facets for ribs

Lumbar Vertebrae

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<p></p>

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  • Encloses and protects viscera of the thoracic cavity

  • Thoracic skeleton acts an anchor for muscles, including those for respiration

  • Attachment for muscles that move the upper limb, scapula

Functions of the Thoracic Cage

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What makes up the Thoracic Cage?

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<ul><li><p>Most ribs articulate with sternum via costal cartilage</p></li><li><p>Contributes to the elasticity of the thoracic cage</p></li></ul>
  • Most ribs articulate with sternum via costal cartilage

  • Contributes to the elasticity of the thoracic cage

Label + Function

<p>Label + Function</p>
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<ul><li><p><strong>True ribs 1-7</strong>: articulate directly with the sternum via costal cartilage</p></li><li><p><strong>False ribs 8-10</strong>: articulate indirectly via fused costal cartilage</p></li><li><p><strong>Floating ribs 11 &amp; 12</strong>: no anterior articulation. Don&apos;t wrap all the way around</p></li></ul>
  • True ribs 1-7: articulate directly with the sternum via costal cartilage

  • False ribs 8-10: articulate indirectly via fused costal cartilage

  • Floating ribs 11 & 12: no anterior articulation. Don't wrap all the way around

Label + Explain

<p>Label + Explain</p>
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<p><strong>Tubercle</strong>: articulates with transverse process of thoracic vertebrae</p><p><strong>Head</strong>: articulates with body of the thoracic vertebrae (via costal facet)</p>

Tubercle: articulates with transverse process of thoracic vertebrae

Head: articulates with body of the thoracic vertebrae (via costal facet)

Label

<p>Label</p>
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Bumb/Prominence

Tubercle

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Relating to ribs

Costal

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<p><strong>Primary muscles of inspiration</strong>: Diaphragm, External intercostals</p><p><strong>Accessory muscles of inspiration</strong>: Scalenes, Sternocleidomastoid</p>

Primary muscles of inspiration: Diaphragm, External intercostals

Accessory muscles of inspiration: Scalenes, Sternocleidomastoid

Muscles of Inspiration

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<p><strong>Primary muscles of expiration</strong>: Diaphragm, Internal intercostals Innermost intercostals</p><p><strong>Accessory muscles of expiration</strong>: Innermost intercostals, Anterior abdominal wall muscles</p>

Primary muscles of expiration: Diaphragm, Internal intercostals Innermost intercostals

Accessory muscles of expiration: Innermost intercostals, Anterior abdominal wall muscles

Muscles of Expiration

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  • Also referred to as an articulation

  • The site where two (or more) bones connect

  • Link the skeletal system

  • Joints facilitate movement of the skeleton

What is a joint and why do we have them?

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<p>The more stable a joint, the less mobile &amp; vice versa</p>

The more stable a joint, the less mobile & vice versa

Stability vs Mobility - Joints

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<p></p>

Classification of joints

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<p>Joined by dense fibrous connective tissue</p>

Joined by dense fibrous connective tissue

Fibrous synarthrosis

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<ul><li><p>Created when bones fuse together</p></li><li><p>The boundaries separating the bones disappear upon fusion</p></li></ul>
  • Created when bones fuse together

  • The boundaries separating the bones disappear upon fusion

Bony Fusion

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<p>Bones joined by a wedge of cartilage (allows for some degree of flexibility)</p>

Bones joined by a wedge of cartilage (allows for some degree of flexibility)

Cartilaginous amphiarthrosis

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<ul><li><p>Specialized for movement: permit a wider range of motion than other joints</p></li><li><p>Typically found at the ends of long bones, such as those of the upper and lower limbs</p></li></ul><p>All synovial joints have the same basic components:</p><ol><li><p>Joint capsule</p></li><li><p>Articular cartilage</p></li><li><p>Joint cavity filled synovial fluid</p></li><li><p>Synovial membrane</p></li><li><p>Accessory structures</p></li></ol>
  • Specialized for movement: permit a wider range of motion than other joints

  • Typically found at the ends of long bones, such as those of the upper and lower limbs

All synovial joints have the same basic components:

  1. Joint capsule

  2. Articular cartilage

  3. Joint cavity filled synovial fluid

  4. Synovial membrane

  5. Accessory structures

Synovial Joints

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<ul><li><p>Surrounds synovial joint, encloses joint cavity</p></li><li><p>Made of outer dense connective tissue layer &amp; inner synovial membrane</p></li></ul>
  • Surrounds synovial joint, encloses joint cavity

  • Made of outer dense connective tissue layer & inner synovial membrane

Joint Capsule

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<ul><li><p>Lines inner surfaces of the joint (does not cover the articulating bone surfaces)</p></li><li><p>Produces synovial fluid</p></li></ul>
  • Lines inner surfaces of the joint (does not cover the articulating bone surfaces)

  • Produces synovial fluid

Synovial membrane

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<ul><li><p>Fills the joint cavity</p></li><li><p>Lubricates (reduces friction)</p></li><li><p>Absorbs shock</p></li><li><p>Distributes nutrients to cells of the articular cartilage</p></li></ul>
  • Fills the joint cavity

  • Lubricates (reduces friction)

  • Absorbs shock

  • Distributes nutrients to cells of the articular cartilage

Synovial fluid

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<ul><li><p>Covers surfaces of articulating bones</p></li><li><p>Smooth surface helps reduce friction during movement</p></li></ul><p></p><p>People with arthritis will have wearing away articular cartilage</p>
  • Covers surfaces of articulating bones

  • Smooth surface helps reduce friction during movement

People with arthritis will have wearing away articular cartilage

Articular cartilage

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Provide support and additional stability

1. Menisci

2. Ligaments

3. Bursae

4. Fat pads

Accessory Structures of Synovial Joints

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<p><strong>Menisci (meniscus)</strong></p><ul><li><p>Fibrocartilage pads between bone</p></li><li><p>Reduce friction, disperse weight, protect &amp; cushion joint surface</p></li></ul>

Menisci (meniscus)

  • Fibrocartilage pads between bone

  • Reduce friction, disperse weight, protect & cushion joint surface

Label + Explain

<p>Label + Explain</p>
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<p><strong>Ligaments</strong></p><ul><li><p>Fibrous connective tissue connecting bone to bone</p></li><li><p>Support and strengthen synovial joints</p></li></ul>

Ligaments

  • Fibrous connective tissue connecting bone to bone

  • Support and strengthen synovial joints

Label + Explain

<p>Label + Explain</p>
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<ul><li><p>Outside (extracapsular)</p></li><li><p>Inside (intracapsular)</p></li></ul>
  • Outside (extracapsular)

  • Inside (intracapsular)

Relative to the joint capsule, can be located…

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<p><strong>Bursa (bursae pl.)</strong></p><ul><li><p>Small fluid-filled pockets in connective tissue, occur around tendons and bones</p></li><li><p>Filled with synovial fluid, lined by a synovial membrane</p></li><li><p>Reduce friction</p></li><li><p>Act as shock absorbers</p></li></ul>

Bursa (bursae pl.)

  • Small fluid-filled pockets in connective tissue, occur around tendons and bones

  • Filled with synovial fluid, lined by a synovial membrane

  • Reduce friction

  • Act as shock absorbers

Label + Explain

<p>Label + Explain</p>
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<p><strong>Fat Pads</strong></p><ul><li><p>Usually found around the periphery of the joint</p></li><li><p>Protect articular cartilages</p></li><li><p>Cushion joint as a whole</p></li></ul>

Fat Pads

  • Usually found around the periphery of the joint

  • Protect articular cartilages

  • Cushion joint as a whole

Label + Explain

<p>Label + Explain</p>
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  1. Gliding movements

  2. Angular movements

  3. Rotational movements

  4. Special movements

Types of movement at synovial joints

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<ul><li><p>Also referred to as: planar/linear movement</p></li><li><p>Two opposing (flat) surfaces slide past each other</p></li></ul>
  • Also referred to as: planar/linear movement

  • Two opposing (flat) surfaces slide past each other

Gliding movements

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Movement that changes the angle between articulating bones

  • Flexion & Extension

  • Abduction & Adduction

  • Circumduction

Angular movements

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<p><strong>Flexion</strong>: <u>Decrease</u> in the angle between articulating bones</p><p><strong>Extension</strong>: <u>Increase</u> in the angle between articulating bones</p>

Flexion: Decrease in the angle between articulating bones

Extension: Increase in the angle between articulating bones

Flexion & Extension

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<p><strong>Adduction</strong>: Movement of a structure <u>toward</u> the midline</p><p><strong>Abduction</strong>: Movement of a structure <u>away</u> from the midline</p><p><em> *</em>Fingers (and toes) move away from or toward the middle finger (toe) (not the midline of the body)*</p>

Adduction: Movement of a structure toward the midline

Abduction: Movement of a structure away from the midline

*Fingers (and toes) move away from or toward the middle finger (toe) (not the midline of the body)*

Abduction & Adduction

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<p>Combination of:</p><p>• Extension, Flexion, Adduction, Abduction</p><ul><li><p>Best performed at ball and socket joints, such as hip and shoulder</p></li><li><p>Can also be performed by other body parts such as: fingers, wrist, and head</p></li></ul>

Combination of:

• Extension, Flexion, Adduction, Abduction

  • Best performed at ball and socket joints, such as hip and shoulder

  • Can also be performed by other body parts such as: fingers, wrist, and head

Circumduction

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  • Rotations

  • Supination & Pronation

Rotational movements

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<p>Right or left rotation</p><p>Medial (internal) rotation</p><ul><li><p>Rotation <u>towards</u> the midline</p></li></ul><p>Lateral (external) rotation</p><ul><li><p>Rotation <u>away</u> from the midline</p></li></ul>

Right or left rotation

Medial (internal) rotation

  • Rotation towards the midline

Lateral (external) rotation

  • Rotation away from the midline

Rotations

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<p>Supination (think holding up soup)</p><ul><li><p>Radius in anatomical position</p></li><li><p>Rotation of the forearm that makes the palm face anteriorly</p></li></ul><p>Pronation (think pouring soup)</p><ul><li><p>Radius rolls across anterior surface of ulna</p></li><li><p>Rotation of the forearm that makes the palm face posteriorly</p></li></ul>

Supination (think holding up soup)

  • Radius in anatomical position

  • Rotation of the forearm that makes the palm face anteriorly

Pronation (think pouring soup)

  • Radius rolls across anterior surface of ulna

  • Rotation of the forearm that makes the palm face posteriorly

Supination & Pronation

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<p><strong>Inversion</strong>: Sole of foot twists inward</p><p><strong>Eversion</strong>: Sole of foot twists outward</p><p><strong>Dorsiflexion</strong>:<strong> </strong>Elevate sole of foot (decrease angle between dorsum of foot and anterior surface of leg)</p><p><strong>Plantar flexion</strong>: Elevate heel of foot (decrease angle between plantar surface of foot and posterior surface of leg)</p>

Inversion: Sole of foot twists inward

Eversion: Sole of foot twists outward

Dorsiflexion: Elevate sole of foot (decrease angle between dorsum of foot and anterior surface of leg)

Plantar flexion: Elevate heel of foot (decrease angle between plantar surface of foot and posterior surface of leg)

Special Movements: The Foot

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<p><strong>Opposition</strong>: Thumb moves across palm to touch the tips of the fingers</p><p><strong>Reposition</strong>: Thumb and fingers move from opposition back to anatomical position</p>

Opposition: Thumb moves across palm to touch the tips of the fingers

Reposition: Thumb and fingers move from opposition back to anatomical position

Special Movements: The Thumb

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<p><strong>Protraction</strong>: Moving part of the body anteriorly in the horizontal (transverse) plane</p><p><strong>Retraction</strong>: Part of the body moves posteriorly in the horizontal plane</p><p>Ex. pulling back shoulder blades toward spine</p>

Protraction: Moving part of the body anteriorly in the horizontal (transverse) plane

Retraction: Part of the body moves posteriorly in the horizontal plane

Ex. pulling back shoulder blades toward spine

Special Movements: Protraction & Retraction

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<p><strong>Elevation</strong>: Structure moves in a superior direction</p><p><strong>Depression</strong>: Structure moves in an inferior direction</p>

Elevation: Structure moves in a superior direction

Depression: Structure moves in an inferior direction

Special movements: Elevation & Depression

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<p><strong>Lateral flexion</strong>: Vertebral column bends to the side</p><p><strong>Flexion/Extension</strong></p><p><strong>Rotation (twisting)</strong></p>

Lateral flexion: Vertebral column bends to the side

Flexion/Extension

Rotation (twisting)

Special Movements: Vertebral Column

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  • Pivot joint

  • Hinge joint

  • Ellipsoid joint

  • Ball and socket joint

  • Saddle ioint

  • Gliding joint

Types of synovial joints

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<p>Flattened or slightly curved surfaces slide across one another</p>

Flattened or slightly curved surfaces slide across one another

Gliding (plane) joint

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<p><strong>Monoaxial</strong>: angular movement across one axis (flexion/extension)</p><ul><li><p>Convex surface of bone fits into a concave surface of a bone</p></li></ul><p>Other hinge joints:</p><ul><li><p>Ankle joint</p></li><li><p>Knee joint</p></li><li><p>Interphalangeal (finger) joints</p></li></ul><p>*modified hinge joints, permit some other movements like slight gliding or rotation*</p>

Monoaxial: angular movement across one axis (flexion/extension)

  • Convex surface of bone fits into a concave surface of a bone

Other hinge joints:

  • Ankle joint

  • Knee joint

  • Interphalangeal (finger) joints

*modified hinge joints, permit some other movements like slight gliding or rotation*

Hinge joint

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<p><strong>Monoaxial</strong>: permits only rotation</p><ul><li><p>Pointed surface of bone articulates with a ring (made up of bone and ligament)</p></li></ul><p></p><p>Other pivot joints: Proximal radioulnar joint</p>

Monoaxial: permits only rotation

  • Pointed surface of bone articulates with a ring (made up of bone and ligament)

Other pivot joints: Proximal radioulnar joint

Pivot joint

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<p><strong>Biaxial</strong>: permits motion across two axes</p><ul><li><p>Oval articular face (condyle) sits within a depression on the opposing surface</p></li><li><p>Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction (and circumduction)</p></li></ul><p>Ex. Metacarpophalangeal joints 1-5 of the hand</p>

Biaxial: permits motion across two axes

  • Oval articular face (condyle) sits within a depression on the opposing surface

  • Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction (and circumduction)

Ex. Metacarpophalangeal joints 1-5 of the hand

Ellipsoidal (condylar) joint

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<p><strong>Biaxial</strong>: angular movement across two axes, opposition</p><ul><li><p>Articular surface of a bone fits into a saddle-shaped bone</p></li></ul>

Biaxial: angular movement across two axes, opposition

  • Articular surface of a bone fits into a saddle-shaped bone

Saddle joint

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<p>Most mobility</p><p><strong>Triaxial</strong>: angular and rotational movement across three axes</p><ul><li><p>Round head of a bone fits into a cup-shaped depression of a bone</p></li><li><p>Angular motion, circumduction, rotation</p></li></ul><p>Other ball-and-socket joints: Hip joint</p>

Most mobility

Triaxial: angular and rotational movement across three axes

  • Round head of a bone fits into a cup-shaped depression of a bone

  • Angular motion, circumduction, rotation

Other ball-and-socket joints: Hip joint

Ball-and-socket joint

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<p>Pectoral Girdle</p>

Pectoral Girdle

Label (What is the area called?)

<p>Label (What is the area called?)</p>
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Orientation of pectoral girdle

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<p><strong>Clavicle - Superior view</strong></p><p></p><p><strong>Acromial / lateral end</strong></p><ul><li><p>Articulates with acromion of scapula</p></li></ul><p><strong>Sternal / medial end</strong></p><ul><li><p>Articulates with sternum</p></li></ul>

Clavicle - Superior view

Acromial / lateral end

  • Articulates with acromion of scapula

Sternal / medial end

  • Articulates with sternum

Label + Function

<p>Label + Function</p>
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<p><strong>Clavicle - Inferior View</strong></p><p>Rough inferior surface</p><ul><li><p>Attachment sites for muscles and ligaments</p></li></ul>

Clavicle - Inferior View

Rough inferior surface

  • Attachment sites for muscles and ligaments

Label + Describe

<p>Label + Describe</p>
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<p>Sternoclaviular Joint</p>

Sternoclaviular Joint

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<p>Label</p>
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Depression in bone

Fossa

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<p>3 fossae of the scapula</p>

3 fossae of the scapula

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<p>Label</p>
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