Hemostatic and RBC Disease (STOLEN)

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109 Terms

1

Blood components

Plasma, cellular components, and platelets

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Blood function

Transport, regulate, defend

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Hematopoiesis

Continuous production of all blood cells throughout life

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4

Fetus hematopoiesis

Blood cell production in the liver and spleen

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Newborn hematopoiesis

Blood cell production in the red bone marrow

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Red bone marrow

Contains stem cells that produce red and white blood cells and platelets

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Adult animal hematopoiesis

Red bone marrow sites vary by species

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Hematopoietic stem cell

Primitive stem cell type from which all blood cells derive

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Hematopoiesis types

Erythropoiesis, luekopoiesis, thrombopoiesis

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Erythropoiesis

Process of creating red blood cells

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Erythropoiesis process

Stem cells divide, lose nuclei, produce hemoglobin, and mature

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Erythropoiesis timelines

1 week in dog, 4-5 days in cow, 36 hours in bird

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13

Erythropoietin (EPO)

Hormone that controls erythropoiesis process

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14

Hypoxia stimulates ______

Production of EPO

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15

Lifespan of RBCs

Cats: 68 days, Dogs: 120 days, Cows: 160 days

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Nucleated RBCs (nRBCs)

Immature RBCs produced in response to loss or destruction of RBCs

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RBC structure

No nucleus, mitochondrion, or ribosomes; contains water, hemoglobin, and structural elements

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Mature RBCs

Biconcave discs with thinner central zone

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19

Thrombopoiesis

Differentiation of stem cells into megakaryocytes, releasing platelets

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Thrombopoiesis timeline

Up to 7 days

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21

Thrombopoietin

Hormone produced by the liver to stimulate platelet production

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22

CBC tells us

a test that would evaluate primary hemostasis

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23

coagulation panel tells us

a panel that tells us about PT and aPTT; evaluate secondary hemostasis by evaluating extrinsic, intrinsic, and common pathways of coagulation cascase

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24

Clotting disorders (bleeding disorders)

Disorders that interfere with normal hemostatic process

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Clotting disorder origins

Primary hemostasis (platelets), secondary hemostasis (coagulation cascade), blood vessel

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26

Clinical signs of clotting disorders

Hemorrhage, hematomas, epistaxis, ecchymosis, hematuria, melena

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Hematomas

Localized swelling filled with blood caused by a break in a blood vessel wall

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Epistaxis

Nosebleed

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29

Ecchymosis

Large bruised areas

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Petechiae

Tiny red/purple spots of blood in skin or mucous membrane

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Hematuria

Blood in urine

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Melena

Dark blood in feces

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Hyphema

Blood accumulation in the anterior portion of the eye

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34

Thrombocytopenia

Deficiency in platelets in the blood

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35

Thrombocytopenia causes

Decreased production, increased destruction, increased consumption, impaired function

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Decreased platelet production

Thrombocytopenia due to damaged or suppressed bone marrow

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37

Increased platelet destruction

Thrombocytopenia due to the body's destruction of its own platelets

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38

Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP)

Type 2 hypersensitivity where antibodies are produced against platelets

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39

Tick-borne ITPs

Ehrlichiosis, Anaplasma platys, A. phagocytophilum, Rocky Mountain spotted fever

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40

Ehrlichiosis

Tick-borne bacterial infection causing fever, lymphadenopathy, and swelling

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Anaplasma platys

Tick-borne bacteria causing mild to moderate thrombocytopenia

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42

A. phagocytophilum

Tick-borne bacteria causing lameness, bleeding, and fever

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43

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Caused by Rickettsia rickettsia; fever, lethargy, epistaxis, hemorrhage, lameness, CNS signs, death

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44

Drug-formed ITPs

Unexplained thrombocytopenia from certain medications

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45

Increased platelet consumption

Thrombocytopenia due to deregulation of normal blood clotting/dissolving

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46

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

Extreme complications of life-threatening conditions leading to deregulation of blood clotting

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47

DIC triggers

Heat stroke, shock, severe trauma, infection, cancer

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48

DIC pathogenesis

Produces diffuse endothelial damage, platelet adhesion/activation, thrombus formation, and fatal bleeding

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49

Impaired platelet function

Thrombocytopenia due to diseases and drugs affecting platelet adhesion and aggregation

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50

NSAID effect on platelets

Aspirin inhibits cyclooxygenases, decreasing thromboxane, which supports platelet aggregation

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51

Von Willebrand disease

Blood clotting disorder from deficiency or deficient quality of von Willebrand factor

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52

Von Willebrand's factor

Protein complex that holds platelets together and onto the surface of a torn blood vessel

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53

Von Willebrand disease breeds

Doberman pinschers, golden retrievers, shetland sheepdogs, rottweilers, mini schnauzers, german shepherds, german short-haired pointers, poodles, scottish terriers

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54

Von Willebrand disease signs

Bleeding with minor injury or surgery, spontaneous bleeding, recurring epistaxis, hematuria, melena

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55

Coagulation factor disorders

Disorders that interfere with the coagulation cascade and affect clotting

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Coagulation factor disorder causes

Clotting factor deficiency, decreased production, increased consumption

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Clotting factor deficiency example

Hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency)

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Hemophilia A clinical signs

Prolonged bleeding, hemorrhage, spontaneous bleeding resulting in lameness, death

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Decreased clotting factor production examples

Liver disease, toxins

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60

Liver disease

Disease that affects the liver, decreasing production of clotting proteins

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61

Infectious canine hepatitis (canine adenovirus 1)

Viral liver infection that affects young dogs

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Canine adenovirus 1 clinical signs

Fever, vomiting, anorexia, CNS signs; sometimes hemostatic abnormalities or liver cirrhosis, vasculitis, icterus, corneal cloudiness

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Leptospirosis

Zoonotic bacterial liver infection that leads to kidney failure with liver failure

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Leptospirosis clinical signs

Lethargy, polyuria, polydipsia, oliguria, anuria, anorexia, vomiting; sometimes hemostatic abnormalities or thrombocytopenia

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65

Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever)

Fungal liver infection spread through inhaled dust

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66

Coccidioidomycosis clinical signs

Abscesses in lungs and joints in dogs, skin lesions in cats; rarely ascites, icterus, hepatomegaly

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Histoplasmosis

Fungal liver infection spread through inhaled spores

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Histoplasmosis clinical signs

Respiratory or disseminated infection, cough, lethargy, anorexia

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69

Canine chronic hepatitis

Acute hepatitis turned chronic

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70

Canine chronic hepatitis etiologies

Adenovirus 1, lepto, drug-associated, copper storage hepatopathy, immune-mediated, idiopathic

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71

Cholangiohepatitis

Inflammation in the liver/biliary tract preventing bile from passing

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72

Cholangiohepatitis etiologies

Immune-mediated, bacterial

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73

Hepatic lipidosis in cats

Triglycerides accumulate within liver cells and affect function

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Anticoagulant rodenticides

Poisons used to kill rodents

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75

Rodenticide toxin behavior

Interferes with the ability of the liver to recycle vitamin K1

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Rodenticide toxin clinical signs

Spontaneous bleeding, lethargy

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Rodenticide treatment

Induce emesis, give activated charcoal, administer vitamin K1, monitor PT or PIVKA, FFP or whole blood if actively bleeding

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78

Increased clotting factor consumption example

DIC, snake bites, spider bites

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Snake bite clinical signs

Tissue discoloration, dark fluid oozing, neuro signs, tachypnea, dyspnea, renal failure

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80

Brown recluse spider bite signs

Blister followed by necrotic skin, vomiting, fever, lethargy, bleeding disorders, organ damage

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81

Endothelial bleeding issues

Bleeding secondary to endothelial injury; congenital vascular defect, trauma, tumors, vasculitis

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82

Congenital vascular defect

Collagen defect leading to weak structural support of blood vessels

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Tumor-induced bleeding

Tumors growing into neighboring blood vessels and causing bleeding

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84

Vasculitis

Inflammation of blood vessels causing thickening, scarring, weakening

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85

Thrombus

Abnormal aggregation of platelets and fibrin under abnormal conditions

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86

Thromboembolism

Thrombus traveling in the bloodstream and getting stuck in a small vessel

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87

Ischemia

Inadequate blood supply causing shortage of O2 and glucose for cellular metabolism

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Infarction

Irreversible tissue death due to inadequate blood supply

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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)

Most common form of feline heart disease

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90

Feline aortic thromboembolism

Thrombus formation in the left atrium, traveling to the aorta and lodging at the aortic bifurcation

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91

Anemia

Decreased hematocrit and total red cell count

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Regenerative anemia

Bone marrow responds appropriately to decreased RBCs by increasing production

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Non-regenerative anemia

Bone marrow responds inadequately to increased need

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Anemia clinical signs

Pale mm, depression, weakness, dyspnea, exercise intolerance, heart murmurs, icterus

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Icterus

Yellow pigment of skin, tissues, fluids caused by deposition of bile pigments

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Anemia causes

RBC loss, destruction, or decreased production in bone marrow

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Anemia via blood loss

Hemorrhage

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Anemia via RBC destruction

Hemolysis, immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA)

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Hemolysis

Destruction of RBCs within the body

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IMHA

Type 2 hypersensitivity where antibodies are produced against RBCs

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