AP Psych Unit 2 and 3

studied byStudied by 25 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Psychophyiscs

1 / 190

191 Terms

1

Psychophyiscs

branch of psych that studies how sensory stimuli changes thoughts

New cards
2

absolute threshold

smallest amount of a stimulus you can detect

New cards
3

difference threshold

smallest amount of change in a stimulus you can detect

New cards
4

Weber Law

The greater the magnitude or intensity of a stimulus; the more that stimulus must change before a person can notice it’s different

New cards
5

selective attention

ability to focus upon one stimulus, from among all surrounding environmental stimuli

New cards
6

goal-directed attention

selective attention to stimuli necessary for completing a task

New cards
7

change blindness

observer fails to notice a change in a visual stimulus because they are focused on something else

New cards
8

stimulus driven capture

larger magnitude or new stimuli are rapidly attended to

New cards
9

sensory adaptation

the longer a person is exposed to an unchanging stimulus; the less likely they are to detect it

New cards
10

signal detection theory

a person‘s emotional state, expectations and decisions making processes affect if they detect a stimulus or not

New cards
11

McGurk Effect

what is seen can alter what is heard

New cards
12

cornea

outermost and protective layer of the eyes

New cards
13

pupil

opening in the eye that allows light to enter

New cards
14

iris

colored portion of the eye that surrounds the pupil

New cards
15

lens

structure that focus light on the retina

New cards
16

accomodation

process in which muscles change the shape of the lens to better focus light

New cards
17

retina

where transduction occurs

New cards
18

photoreceptors

the cones are the first level of cells in retina

New cards
19

cones

activated by color and bright light

New cards
20

rods

activated by low light

New cards
21

bipolar cells

connected to several rods and only one cone

New cards
22

ganglion cells

bundle together to form optic nerve

New cards
23

optic chiasma

x-shaped structure where optic nerves cross over to the hemispheres

New cards
24

feature detectors

specialized neurons in the visual cortex that allow us to detect angles, shapes, edges, and movement

New cards
25

Trichromatic theory

Three cones, S M and L that fire in different combinations and rates to allow a range of colors to be detected

New cards
26

Opponent Process Theory

bipolar cells allow nerve fibers to detect complementary pairs of colors

New cards
27

Afterimage

when a visual sensation briefly persists after original stimulus has been removed

New cards
28

sound localization

ability to determine the origin of a sound by judging the relative time and intensity which sound waves reach each ear

New cards
29

cocktail party effect

ability to focus attention on one particular sound while filtering out other sounds

New cards
30

top down processing

occurs when stimuli are perceived as a whole rather than individual features

New cards
31

bottom up processing

analyzing individual elements

New cards
32

law of Pragnanz

people have tendency to being with top down processing because it has less cognitive effort than bottom up processin

New cards
33

perceptual organizations and grouping

unconscious mind and automatic cognitive steps taken to establish an order in what is seen heard, etc.

New cards
34

Gestalt Principles

the cognitive tendencies which influence the ways people organize images into patterns or wholes

New cards
35

Law of Common Fate

visual elements seen moving in the same direction at the same rate, are perceived as a whole unit

New cards
36

Law of Common Region

objects enclosed in borders or backgrounds are often perceived as a single unit

New cards
37

simplicity

we tend to organize stimuli in the simplest way possible

New cards
38

closure

tendency to fill any missing parts of a figure and see it as complete

New cards
39

figure-ground

your experience of automatically identifying a figure, which has more detail, standing out against a background, which has less detail

New cards
40

proximity

we tend to group objects that are physically close together

New cards
41

perceptual set

temporary readiness to perceive a stimulus as a person expects to perceive it

New cards
42

size constancy

ability to understand objects maintain a constant size despite the object’s distance

New cards
43

shape constancy

objects maintain a constant shape, despite changing angle of view

New cards
44

brightness constancy

ability to understand objects maintain a constant shape, despite lighting changes

New cards
45

motion perception

feature detectors detect image’s expansion, diminishment, or movement across the retina

New cards
46

depth perception

cognitive ability to perceive 3d characteristics of an objects or judge the distance of an object

New cards
47

monocular cues

visual info needed to perceive depth detected by one eye brain unconsciously

New cards
48

Relative size

small images are perceived as being further away; larger images are closer

New cards
49

texture gradient

objects closer to the viewer are seen with greater detail than those further away

New cards
50

interposition

an object obstructing the view of another is perceived as being closer

New cards
51

linear perspective

parallel lines appear to converge at greater distance

New cards
52

motion parallax

closer objects appear to move more quickly through the visual field while viewer is in motion

New cards
53

binocular cues

depth perception info only detected with both eyes

New cards
54

convergence

the eyes must converge inward to see an object that is up close

New cards
55

retinal disparity

each eye/retina has unique angle of view

New cards
56

parapsychology

The study of psychological phenomenon that can’t be scientifically validated

New cards
57

cold reading technique

psychic makes multiple high probability guesses about a person's background, lifestyle, fears, etc.

New cards
58

subliminal threshold

when stimuli are detected below the absolute threshold

New cards
59

transduction

conversion of energy from one to another

New cards
60

wavelength

distance from the peak of one sound wave to the next

New cards
61

hue

color we experience

New cards
62

parallel processing

processing many things at once

New cards
63

place theory

different hairs vibrate in the cochlea when they hear different pitches, so some hairs vibrate when they hear high pitches and others vibrate when they hear low ones

New cards
64

conduction deafness

when something goes wrong w/ the sound & vibration on the way to the cochlea

New cards
65

Sensorineural deafness

when hair cells in cochlea get damaged

New cards
66

kinesthesis

sense of position and movement of body parts

New cards
67

Vestibular sense

monitors body’s position and movement (semicircular canals in ear help keep balance)

New cards
68

Gustation

taste

New cards
69

papillae

bumps on our tongue

New cards
70

oflaction

smell receptors are located at top of nasal cavity

New cards
71

anosmia

loss of smell

New cards
72

gestalt

an organized whole

New cards
73

figure-ground relationship

our first perceptual decision is what in the image is the figure and what is the background

New cards
74

phi phenomenon

an illusion of movement created when 2 or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession

New cards
75

perceptual constancy

perceiving objects as unchanging when illumination and retinal images are changing

New cards
76

extrasensory adaptation

the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, & precognition

New cards
77

inattentional blindness

failing to see objects when attention is somewhere else

New cards
78

heredity

genetically transmitted or transmittable from parent to offspring

New cards
79

environment

every nongenetic influence from conception to health

New cards
80

chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA that contains that genes

New cards
81

genes

each DNA segment of a chromosome that determines a trait

New cards
82

PKU

mutation

New cards
83

down syndrome

extra 21st chromosome

New cards
84

Klinefelter’s syndrone

XXY, extreme introversion and minimal sexual development

New cards
85

Turner’s syndrome

X, shortness and different in physical sexual development

New cards
86

Rosenzweig’s study

environment influences neuroplasticity

New cards
87

endocrine system

glands secrete hormones into the bloodstream

New cards
88

hormones

chemical messengers that travel through the blood

New cards
89

hypothalamus

endocrine gland in the brain that produces hormones that stimulate or inhibit the secretion of hormones by the pituitary

New cards
90

pituitary gland

produces hormones' that control growth hormone production

New cards
91

pineal gland

Small endocrine gland located in the brain that produces melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles and influences mood.

New cards
92

thyroid

produces thyroxine which regulates metabolism

New cards
93

adrenal

produces adrenaline (fight or flight response)

New cards
94

pancreas

produces insulin, helps get energy from food

New cards
95

ovary and testes

produces hormones necessary for reproduction (estrogen and testosterone)

New cards
96

nervous system

body’s speedy electrochemical communication system

New cards
97

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

New cards
98

peripheral nervous system

includes all of the sensory and motor neurons, carries out orders from the central nervous system

New cards
99

autonomic nervous system

controls involuntary/automatic movements

New cards
100

sympathetic nervous system

fight or flight; prepares body for stressful situations

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 2595 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(133)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard69 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard70 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard94 terms
studied byStudied by 79 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard99 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard128 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard166 terms
studied byStudied by 879 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(8)