HUBS 191 final

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Astrocytes

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1

Astrocytes

star shaped glial cell that supplies nutrients and is the first responder to injuries

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Microglia

CNS immune cells

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Ependyrnal cells

Have cillia to move fluid around fluid filled regions

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Ogliodendrocytes

Creates myelin sheathes in the CNS

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5

Somatic efferent

made up of 2 myelinated neuron’s where the effector is skeletal muscle cells

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Autonomic efferent

made up of 3 neurons and is both myelinated and unmyelinated

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Parasympathetic

rest and digest system, long neuron 2 and short neuron 3, neurotransmitter is ACh, bodies at the cranial and sacral level

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Sympathetic

fight or flight respons, short neuron 2 and long neuron 3, neurotransmitter is norepinephrine, bodies between T1 and L2

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Dorsal spinal cord

Afferent side

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Ventral spinal cord

Efferent side

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Dorsal root ganglion

made up of unipolar cell bodies

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12

Dorsal Ramus

dorsal branch that carries information too and from the dorsal side

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Ventral Ramus

ventral branch that carries information too and from the ventral side

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Rami commincans

sympathetic chain ganglion between T1 and L2

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Falx cerebri

sickle shaped dural fold separating the cerebrum’s hemispheres

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Falx Ceribelli

sickle-shaped dural fold separating the cerebellums hemispheres

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Tentorium ceribelli

tent shaped dural fold laterally separating the cerebrum and cerebellum

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Lateral ventricle

2 hook like ventricles located one in each cerebral hemisphere

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19

3rd ventricle

tube ventricle connecting the lateral ventricle to the cerebral aquaduct, this is located at the level of teh diencephalon

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Cerebral aquaduct

triangle shaped ventricle connecting the 3rd and 4th ventricles

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4th ventricle

ventricle that sits at the level of the cerebellum and connects to the central canal

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22

central canal

space that runs through the spinal cord to circulate cerebrospinal fluid

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23

choroid plexus

a non-neuronal tissue found in the ventricular system for the production of cerebrospinal fluid

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commisural tract

axons cross the cortex allowing for inter-hemisphere communication

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association tract

axons stay within one hemisphere

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projection tract

axons leave the cortex

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27

Stretch reflex

simplest neural circuit where a stimulus stretches the stretch receptors in the muscle spindle causing the opposite movement to occur

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proprioceptors

provide continual information to the brain about where the body is in space

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cerebellum

plans, learns, and executes motor programmes

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30

tactile receptors

touch and vibration

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31

water soluble hormones

small chain peptides and Catecholamines

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32

lipid soluble hormone

Steroids and thyroid hormones are modified amino acids, involved in gene activation

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33

pancreas

exocrine gland that is the receptor and control centre for blood glucose homeostasis

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34

beta cells

Secrete insulin

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35

alpha cells

Secrete Glucagon

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36

insulin

lower blood glucose levels through the formation of glycogen and fats

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glucagon

increases glucose through the break up of glycogen and the synthesis of ketones and glucose

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38

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

made by the posterior pituitary gland, increases water reabsorption in the kidneys

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39

Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GH-RH)

released by hypothalamus to stimulate the anterior pituitary gland G

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40

Growth hormone

Released by the anterior pituitary gland, impacts metabolism, and growth and repair

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Somatomedin C (IGF-1)

released by liver to inhibit the release of GH-RH and stimulate the release of GH-IH

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42

Growth Hormone Inhibitor (GH-IH)

released by hypothalamus to inhibit the release of GH

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43

Thyraglobulin Protein (TGB)

initial form of TH that is Thyrosin rich

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44

T3

active form of thyrosin

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45

T4

inactive most abundent form of thyrosin

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46

Thyroid binding globulin (TBG)

T3’s carrier protein

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47

thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)

released by the hypothalamus and stimulates the anterior pituitary gland T

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48

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

released by the anterior pituitary gland and stimulates teh thyroid

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49

Effects of T3

negative feedback to inhibit the release of TSH and TRH

increase in body heat, fat synthesis, protein and carbohydrate breakdown

increases synthesis and activity of na/k pumps which increases the basal metabolic rate

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50

where does calcium come from

osteoclastic break down of CaCO3 in the bones, diet

exits through osteoblastic formation of bone and through urine

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51

Parathyroid Hormone

released by the parathyroid gland to increase osteoclastic activity and calcium reabsorption and convert vitamin D into calcitriol

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Calcitriol

formed from vitamin D, increases calcium absorption in the gut

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Adrenaline

can be hormonal or a neurotransmitter, synthesised and released by the adrenal medulla, increases glycogen and fat breakdown

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Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)

released by the hypothalamus to stimulate the anterior pituitary gland C

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Adrenocorticotropin Hormone (ACTH)

released by the anterior pituitary gland to stimulate the adrenal cortex

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56

Cortisol

made and released by the adrenal cortex after an ACTH signal is received

increases muscle and fat break down and glucose synthesis

decreases glucose uptake

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Alarm phase

fight or flight can last up to hours or days, mainly adrenalin

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Resistance phase

when stress lasts longer than hours to days, retention of salt and water by the kidneys, mainly cortisol

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Exhaustion phase

when stressor lasts weeks to years, ion concentrations not in balance making this stage potentially fatal from heart failure

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60

Addison’s Disease

autoimmune

hypo secretion of cortisol and aldosterone

increased melanin, low blood pressure and weakness

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Cushing’s Disease

cortisol hypersecretion

usually from tumors

increased fat breakdown, moon face, buffalo hump

increased blood pressure and muscle wasting

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infantile hypothyrodism

mothers diet has insufficient iodine during pregnancy and/or breastfeeding

mental and physical delays, cold intolerant, low metabolism

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Iodine deficiency disorder / simple goiter

hyposecreation of thyroid hormone low iodine levels leading to an enlarged thyroid

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graves disorder

autoimmune disorder, hugh metabolic rate and weight loss, hypersecreation of thyroid hormone

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hyperparathyroidism

usually from a tumor, soft brittle bones, kidney stones

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hypercalcaemia

decreased excitability of neurons and muscles, muscle weakness, slowed reflexes

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hypocalcaemia

increased excitability of neurons and muscle cells leading to spasms cramos and tremors

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Type 1 diabetes

hyposecreation of insulin due to destruction of the beta cells

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type 2 diabetes

hyposensetivity of target cells to insulin due to prolonged high blood sugars

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symptoms of diabetes

glucose in urine, thirst, increased urine output, nerve and eye damage

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71

C vertebrae

First 5 vertebrae

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T vertebrae Thoracic

6th-18th vertebrae

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L lumbar vertebrae

19th-26th vertebrae

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lacunae

lakes where osteocytes found

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canaliculi

links Lacunae’s

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Plane Joint

sliding and gliding

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Hinge Joint

flexion and extension movement

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Pivot Joint

Rotation movement

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Condylar Joint

Flexion and extension, Rotation when flexed

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Ellipsoid Joint

flexion and extension, abduction and adduction

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Saddle Joint

flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, opposition

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Ball and Socket Joint

flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, rotation

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Chondrocytes

Mature cartilage cells

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84

Cartilage

made of collagen and ground substance, compression encourages diffusion

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Hyaline cartilage

protects bones at points of articulation

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86

Fibrocartilage

Mainly collagen bundles with some ground substance, shock absorbing

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87

Dense Fibrous connective tissue

limited ground substance, elastin and collagen

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88

Fibroclasts

Growth cells

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89

Fibrocytes

Mature cells

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90

Ligaments

bone-bone, mainly collagen with some elastine

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Tendons

bone to muscle, less elastine than ligaments

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92

Medial Collateral ligament

femur-tibia, restricts abduction

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Lateral collateral ligament

femur-fibular, restricts adduction

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Anterior Cruciate ligament

Anterior of tibia to posterior of femur, restricts posterior displacement

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95

Posterior Cruciate Ligament

posterior of tibia to Anterior of femur, restricts Anterior displacement

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96

Endomysium

Connective tissue surrounding each Muscle fibre

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97

Perimysium

Connective tissue surrounding muscle fasicicles

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98

Epimysium

Connective tissue surround the muscle

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99

Myofibrils

Fibres that make up a muscle fibre

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Sarcomeres

Repeating units that make up a myofibril

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