Psych Exam

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Empiricism

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388 Terms

1

Empiricism

The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should therefore rely on observation and experimentation.

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Structuralism

An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.

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Functionalism

A school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.

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4

Humanistic Psychology

The historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.

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5

Biopsychosocial Approach

An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.

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6

Introspection

The examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings, which relies exclusively on observation of one's mental state; in a spiritual context it may refer to the examination of one's soul.

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7

Mary Whiton Calkins

first female president of the APA (1905); a student of William James; denied the PhD she earned from Harvard because of her sex (later, posthumously, it was granted to her)

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8

Charles Darwin

Evolution by "natural selection" (the weaker die out) wrote On the Origin of Species

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9

Dorothea Dix

Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums

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10

Sigmund Freud

Austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis.

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Stanley Hall

American psychologist who established first American research lab and American Psychological Association.

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12

William James

Wrote the first psychology textbook

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13

Ivan Pavlov

discovered classical conditioning; trained dogs to salivate at the ringing of a bell

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14

Jean Piaget

Known for his theory of cognitive development in children

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15

Carl Rogers

Humanistic; self-concept and unconditional positive regard drive personality

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16

B. F. Skinner

behaviorism; pioneer in operant conditioning; behavior is based on an organism's reinforcement history; worked with pigeons

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17

Margaret Floy Washburn

First female to be awarded a PhD in psychology; 2nd president of the APA (1921)

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18

John B. Watson

behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat

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Wilhelm Wundt

german physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879

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20

behavior genetics

the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior

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environment

every non genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

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22

chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

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23

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

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genes

the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein

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genome

the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes

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26

identical twins

twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms

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27

fraternal twins

twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. they are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment

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28

heritability

the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes; the heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied

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interaction

the interplay that occurs when the effoct of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)

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30

molecular genetics

the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes

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31

natural selection

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

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mutation

a random error in gene replication that leads to a change

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33

Lesion

Tissue destruction; Naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.

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34

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.

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35

CT (Computed Tomography) Scan

A series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by a computer into a composite representation of a slice of the brain's structure (also called CAT scan)

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PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan

A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.

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37

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue; These scans show brain anatomy.

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38

fMRI (Functional MRI)

A technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. These scans show brain function as well as its structure.

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39

Brainstem

The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions.

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40

Medulla

The base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.

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41

Reticular Formation

A nerve network in the brainstem and thalamus that plays an important role in controlling arousal.

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42

Thalamus

The brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.

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Cerebellum

The "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance

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44

Limbic System

Doughnut shaped neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.

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45

Amydgala

Two lima-bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion.

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46

Hypothalamus

A neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.

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47

Cerebral Cortex

The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center

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48

Glial Cells

Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons

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49

Frontal Lobes

Portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments

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50

Parietal Lobes

Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.

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51

Occipital Lobes

Portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields

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52

Temporal Lobes

Portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear

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53

Motor Cortex

An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

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54

Sensory Cortex

Area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

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55

Association Areas

Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, speaking

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56

Aphasia

Impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)

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Broca's Area

Controls language expression - an area, usually in the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech

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58

Wernicke's Area

Controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe

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59

Plasticity

The brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience.

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Neurogenesis

The formation of new neurons

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61

Corpus Callosum

The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

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62

Split Brain

a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them

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63

Consiousness

Our awareness of ourselves and our environment

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64

Cognitive Neuroscience

The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

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65

Dual Processing

The principle that information is often simultaneously processes on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

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66

neuron

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

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67

sensory neurons

neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord

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68

motor neurons

neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

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69

interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

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70

dendrite

the busy, branchlike extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

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axon

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

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72

myelin sheath

a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next

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73

action potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

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74

threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

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75

synapse

A junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

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neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons; when released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron with generate a neural impulse

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77

reuptake

a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron

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78

endorphins

"morphine within" -natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

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79

nervous system

the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

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80

central nervous system

the brain and spinal cord

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81

peripheral nervous system

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

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82

nerves

bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

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83

somatic nervous system

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles

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84

autonomic nervous system

The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs such as the heart - its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms

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85

sympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

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parasympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

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87

reflex

a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus such as the knee-jerk response

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88

endocrine system

the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

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89

hormones

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

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90

adrenal glands

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in time of stress

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91

pituitary gland

the endocrine system's most influential gland; under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

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92

Psychology

The science of behavior and mental processes.

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93

Nature-Nurture Issue

The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of the two.

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94

Levels of Analysis

The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.

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95

Biological Psychology

A branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes.

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96

Evolutionary Psychology

The study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection.

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97

Experimental Psychology

The study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method.

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98

Psychodynamic Psychology

A branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders.

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99

Behavioral Psychology

The scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning

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100

Cognitive Psychology

The scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

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