Biology test 1

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what happened in 1859?

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1

what happened in 1859?

Darwin publishes Origin of the Species

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2

Darwin say the orgin and diversity of life explainable by

gradual , heritable changes over time through Evolution by Natural selection

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3

______ biological disciplines today are only fully understood through a lens of ____ ____ _____

all; evolution by natural selection

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4

at 16 yrs old Charles Darwin was renowned for

beetle collection

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5

Darwin first studied ______ (unsuccessfully )and _______ at ____ _____

medicine ; theology ; Cambridge university

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6

what did Darwin do after graduating ?

unpaid naturalist ; 5 year voyage on the HMS Beagle

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7

What was the mission of the HMS Beagle ?

chart coastlines for safe harbors , gather geological and biological specimens

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8

What did 2 things did Darwin encounter on the voyage?

geological processes and unfamiliar juxtaposition of fossils

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9

What are examples of geological processes that can lead to great change?

  • an earthquake that raised the seabed

  • -volcanoes and glaciers

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10

What are examples of unfamiliar juxtaposition of fossils ?

-sea shell fossils in high mountain cliffs

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11

What animals did Darwin see ?

-finches with different beaks and diets

-different mockingbirds on each island

-giant tortoises with different shells

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12

Darwin perceived _____ to the environment and the origin of new species as closely related processes

adaptation

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13

t or f darwin in 1844 introduced his theory of natural selection to the general public

f; he didn't submit his essay at first

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14

Who sent Darwin an essay that supported Darwin's thought?

Alfred Russel Wallace

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15

What did Darwin do when he received that essay?

quickly finished his first public text the Origin of Species and published it

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16

What are the two main ideas of Darwin's theory ?

  1. Descent with modification

  2. Natural selection

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17

What is the Darwinian view?

the history of life is like a tree with branches representing life's diversity

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18

What are Darwin's first observation?

  1. For any given trait there is variation within a population

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19

What is Darwin's 2nd observation?

All species are capable of producing more offspring than the environment can support and many of these offspring do not survive

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20

What is Darwins first inference?

Individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals

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21

What is Darwin's 2nd inference?

this unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to the accumulation of favorable traits in the population over generations

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22

__________ do not evolve;___________ evolve over time

individuals; populations

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23

natural selection acts through

individual reproduction

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24

Natural selection can only _, _ or ________ heritable traits that are _________ ______ in a population

increase, decrease, modify ; already present

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25

T or F; adaptation will vary with different environments

t

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26

What is the first evidence to support natural selection ?

fossils ( trilobite)

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27

what's the 2nd evidence to support natural selection ?

homologies -(similaries in common ancestors) tetrapod limbs

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28

what is the 3rd piece of evidence to support natural selection ?

direct observation ; dogs (artificial selection)

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29

What is the naming and classification of species and groups of species

taxonomy

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30

The scientific discipline of classifying organisms based on their evolutionary relationships . . . .

systematics

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31

Who came up with the naming system?

Carl Von Linnaeus

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32

What is the nested hierarchy order?

Domain

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

(dear king Philip calls out for good soup)

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33

What are the 3 domains?

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

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34

What is modern systematics?

using DNA to determine relatedness and establish a family tree

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35

what is another name for modern systematics?

phylogeny (shared evolutionary traits)

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36

__________- is a change in the allele frequencies of a population over time

microevolution

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37

______________- changes higher than the population level

macroevolution

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38

____________ is something different although micro evolution may lead to it

speciation

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39

what must there be in a population for it to evolve?

variation among individuals

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40

Where does variation within a population come from?

changes in phenotype come from change in genotypes

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41

What is the first cause for changes in genotypes?

mutation (a change in DNA)

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42

what is the second reason for changes in genotypes ?

sexual reproduction's (crossing over and independent assortment )

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43

What do asexual organisms depend on?

mutation for variation

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44

Sexual reproduction can ______ existing alleles into _____ ____________

shuffle; new combinations

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45

T or F for organisms that reproduce sexually mutation is more important that the recombination of alleles

F; recombination is more important

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46

T or F new combinations are important in a changing environment

T

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47

What is the first agent of evolutionary change?

mutation

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48

what is the second agent of evolutionary change?

natural selection

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49

what is the 3rd agent of evolutionary change

genetic drift

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50

what is the 4th agent of evolution change ?

gene flow

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51

Mutation is considered to be an

evolutionary force

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52

Mutations are changes in

the nucleotide sequence of DNA

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53

Mutations cause

new genes and alleles to arise

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54

To be passed off to the offspring . . .

only mutations in cells that produce gametes

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55

T or F traits that increase the likelihood of survival become less common in the population over time

F; more common

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56

What is the only adaptive agent of evolutionary change?

natural selection

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57

What is the first mode of natural selection ?

directional

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58

what is the second mode of natural selection ?

stabilizing

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59

what is the 3rd mode of natural selection ?

disruptive

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60

what is the most influential mechanism of evolution

natural selection

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61

What is directional selection?

favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range ( goes in one direction)

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62

What is stabilizing selection?

favors intermediate variants and acts against extreme phenotypes(to be in the middle)

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63

what is disruptive selection?

favors individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range(one side or the other NO MIDDLE)

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64

___________ ____________ acts on existing variation to change frequency of different phentypes

selective pressure

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65

Intermediate forms are favored in

stabilizing selection

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66

ex of directional selection

peppered moths

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67

ex of stabilizing selection

human birth weights

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68

When extremes are favored over intermediate forms that is

disruptive selection

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69

ex of disruptive selection

Galapagos finches

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70

What is a special form of natural selection ?

sexual selection

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71

T or F selective pressure is the ability to survive and reproduce not attract mates

FALSE; ability to attract mates

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72

What can explain costly& showy structure and behaviors?

sexual selection

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73

What is are the 2 subcategories of sexual selection ?

Intrasexual and intersexual

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74

What is intrasexual selection?

competition among individuals of one sex (often males) for mates of the opposite sex

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75

ex. of intrasexual selection

stag beetles

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76

what is intersexual selection ?

mate choice

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77

ex of intersexual selection?

bower bird

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78

What is balancing selection?

when natural selection maintains two or more forms in a population

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79

What are two types of balancing selection?

  1. Heterozygote advantage

  2. Frequency-dependent selection

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80

What is heterozygote advantage?

neither allele becomes predominant when the heterozygotes are favored

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81

example of an autosomal recessive disorder

sickle cell anemia

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82

What is genetic drift?

random changes in allele frequency over time

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83

T or F genetic drift is not driven by any selective pressure

T

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84

Genetic drift can be . . . .

beneficial , neutral or detrimental but tends to reduce genetic variation through losses of alleles

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85

Genetic drift has a ________ effect in ________ populations

greater; small

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86

What are the two types of genetic drift?

bottleneck effect and founder effect

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87

What is the bottle neck effect?

a drastic reduction in population size brought about by severe pressure

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88

What happens after a bottleneck?

genetic drift is pronounced when a few individuals rebuild a population

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89

ex of bottlenecked species

cheetah

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90

what is the founder effect?

genetic drift is pronounced when a few individuals start a new population

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91

Breeding or mating between close relatives who share a large number of alleles is called

inbreeding

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92

ex of inbreeding

ellis-can creveld syndrome (amish ?)

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93

Gene flow consists of the

movements of alleles among populations

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94

How can alleles be transferred?

through the movement of fertile individuals or gametes (pollen)

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95

gene flow tends to _________ difference between populations over time

reduce

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96

ex of founder effect

when individuals leave to start their own colony

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97

what is the biological species concept

-reproductive compatibility

-a group of population whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable fertile offspring

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98

problems with the biological species concept

asexual organisms and fossils

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99

What does speciation need to have ?

reproductive isolation

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100

what are to causes of reproductive isolation?

pre-zygotic barriers and post-zygotic barriers

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