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138 Terms

1

amplification

The strengthening of stimulus energy during transduction.

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2

apoptosis

A program of controlled cell suicide

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3

epinephrine

water soluble ligand molecule

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4

A catecholamine that

when secreted by the adrenal medulla

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5

also released by some neurons as a neurotransmitter

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6

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G protein

A GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma membrane signal receptor

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gap junction

A type of intercellular junction in animals that allows the passage of materials between cells.

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9

glycogen

An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals

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10

the animal equivalent of starch.

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11

ligand

A molecule that binds specifically to another molecule

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12

often first step in cell communication. Water soluble ligands typically do not enter cell. Lipid soluble ligands (such as steroids) do enter the cell.

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13

ligand-gated ion channel

A protein pore in cellular membranes that opens or closes in response to A signaling chemical (its ligand)

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14

local regulator

A secreted molecule that influences cells near where it is secreted. Used in paracrine and synaptic signaling.

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15

protein kinase

An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein

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16

protein phosphatase

An enzyme that removes phosphate groups from (dephosphorylates) proteins

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17

receptor tyrosine kinase

A receptor protein in the plasma membrane

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18

signal transduction

The linkage of a mechanical

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19

testosterone

A steroid hormone required for development of the male reproductive system

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20

the major androgen in mammals. Pathway illustrates the mechanism for all steroid hormones.

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21

transcription factor

A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription of specific genes. The hormone-receptor complex becomes a transcription factor in the steroid transduction pathway.

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22

three stages of cell communication

reception - receptor responds to binding of ligand molecule

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23

transduction - translation and amplification of message

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response - activation of cellular response

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g-linked protein receptor

receives message for g-linked protein signaling pathway. Consists of seven alpha helices that span the plasma membrane. Changes shape when ligand molecule binds.

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signal transduction pathway

The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted into a specific cellular response.

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27

local regulators

These regulators influence cells in the vicinity of them.

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28

hormones

Circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized cells

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29

ligand

A molecule that specifically binds to another molecule

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30

protein kinase

The enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to protein.

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31

protein phosphatases

Enzymes that can rapidly remove phosphate groups from proteins.

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32

reception

The target cell's detection of a signal molecule coming from outside the cell.

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33

transduction

The binding of the signal molecule changes the receptor protein in some way.

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34

response

The transduced signal finally triggers a specific cellular response.

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35

G-protein-linked receptor

A plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a G-protein.

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36

receptor tyrosine kinase

A receptor with enzymatic activity that can trigger more than one signal transduction pathway at once

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ligand-gated ion channel

Type of membrane receptor that has a region that can act as a "gate" when the receptor changes shape.

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38

sexual reproduction

reproduction that results from combining genetic material from two individuals.

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39

meiosis

type of cell division that results in 4 daughter cells that each have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

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40

Diploid

A cell containing two full sets of chromosomes 2n=46.

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41

Haploid

A cell containing a single/ half set of chromosomes n=23

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Gametes

A haploid male or female germ cell (e.g. sperm and egg)

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43

gene

a section of the DNA (chromosome) that codes for a specific trait (e.g. eye color or hair color)

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44

crossing over

when homologous chromosomes exchange genes during Prophase 1 creating new mixture of parent traits in their offspring

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45

Meiosis I

PMAT I: The first cell division of meiosis when the homologous pairs are split up into two separate cells.

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46

Meiosis II

PMAT II: The second cell division of meiosis. This is when the sister chromatids are split up into two separate cells.

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47

Mitosis

Produces cells almost genetically identical

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48

Asexual reproduction

Has the advantage of producing offspring in greater numbers

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49

23 pairs of chromosomes

How many pairs of chromosomes present in humans

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50

Chromosome

Coiled up DNA

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51

Chromatin

Uncoiled DNA. Present in interphase

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52

Homologous Chromosomes

Carry the same genes at the same locus (location). Ex. Chromosome 1 and Chromosome 1

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53

Function and location of Mitosis

Cell division for growth

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54

Function and location of Meiosis

Cell division for gamete production (sperm and eggs). PMATPMAT

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55

Phases of the Cell Cycle

  1. Interphase (G1

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56

Parts of Interphase

DNA is chromatin G1- growth/protein synthesis S- DNA replication G2- growth/protein synthesis

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Events in Prophase

Chromatin coils up into chromosomes. Centrioles move to poles. Spindle fibres and asters form. Nucleus and nucleolus disappear.

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Events in Metaphase

Chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate. MIDDLE

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Anaphase

APART! Centromeres divide.

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Telophase

Cleavage furrow forms.

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Cytokinesis

Cell divides into two. Cell plate forms in plant cells.

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Sexual Reproduction

Requires male and female gametes. Variation.

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Asexual Reproduction

One parent only. (cloning) Mitosis.

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Crossing over

Homologous chromosomes may exchange genetic material during prophase I. Occurs more often in genes that are further apart.

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Prophase I

Synapsis - homologous chromosomes (tetrads) pair up. Crossing over may occur - exchange of genetic material.

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Metaphase I

Homologous pairs line up in the middle on the metaphase plate.

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Anaphase I

Segregation - Homologous pairs separate to opposite poles.

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Telophase I

Cleavage furrow. Replicated chromosomes reach the poles.

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Prophase II

Chromosomes can be seen. Cells are haploid (n).

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Metaphase II

Chromosomes line up in the middle

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Anaphase II

Centromeres split. Single chromosomes move apart.

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72

Telophase II

Cleavage furrow.

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73

Zygote

sperm + egg 2n

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74

amplification

The strengthening of stimulus energy during transduction.

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75

apoptosis

A program of controlled cell suicide, which is brought about by signals that trigger the activation of a cascade of suicide proteins in the cell destined to die.

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76

epinephrine

water soluble ligand molecule; A catecholamine that, when secreted by the adrenal medulla, mediates "fight

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77

G protein

A GTP

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78

gap junction

A type of intercellular junction in animals that allows the passage of materials between cells.

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79

glycogen

An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.

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80

ligand

A molecule that binds specifically to another molecule; often first step in cell communication. Water soluble ligands typically do not enter cell. Lipid soluble ligands (such as steroids) do enter the cell.

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81

ligand

gated ion channel

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82

local regulator

A secreted molecule that influences cells near where it is secreted. Used in paracrine and synaptic signaling.

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83

protein kinase

An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein, thus phosphorylating the protein.

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84

protein phosphatase

An enzyme that removes phosphate groups from (dephosphorylates) proteins, often functioning to reverse the effect of a protein kinase.

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85

receptor tyrosine kinase

A receptor protein in the plasma membrane, the cytoplasmic (intracellular) part of which can catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a tyrosine on another protein. Receptor tyrosine kinases often respond to the binding of a signaling molecule by dimerizing and then phosphorylating a tyrosine on the cytoplasmic portion of the other receptor in the dimer. The phosphorylated tyrosines on the receptors then activate other signal transduction proteins within the cell.

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86

signal transduction

The linkage of a mechanical, chemical, or electromagnetic stimulus to a specific cellular response.

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87

testosterone

A steroid hormone required for development of the male reproductive system, spermatogenesis, and male secondary sex characteristics; the major androgen in mammals. Pathway illustrates the mechanism for all steroid hormones.

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88

transcription factor

A regulatory protein that binds to DNA and affects transcription of specific genes. The hormone

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89

three stages of cell communication

reception

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90

g

linked protein receptor

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91

signal transduction pathway

The process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted into a specific cellular response.

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92

local regulators

These regulators influence cells in the vicinity of them.

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93

hormones

Circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and act on specific target cells.

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94

ligand

A molecule that specifically binds to another molecule, often a larger one.

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95

protein kinase

The enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to protein.

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96

protein phosphatases

Enzymes that can rapidly remove phosphate groups from proteins.

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97

reception

The target cell's detection of a signal molecule coming from outside the cell.

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98

transduction

The binding of the signal molecule changes the receptor protein in some way.

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99

response

The transduced signal finally triggers a specific cellular response.

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100

G

protein

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