AP Psych: Unit 1

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Structuralism

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52 Terms

1

Structuralism

The study of the structure of the human mind through introspection.

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2

Functionalism

The study of how mental and behavioral processes function and adapt to help individuals survive and flourish.

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3

Behaviorism

The approach to psychology that focuses on observing and studying people's behavior and how they respond, react, and learn in different situations.

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4

Humanistic psychology

The branch of psychology that emphasizes the importance of the current environment in nurturing or limiting personal growth and understanding the needs for love and acceptance.

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5

Clinical psychology

The field of psychology that involves the study, assessment, and treatment of individuals with psychological disorders.

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6

Introspection

The process of asking individuals questions about their experiences in order to understand their inner thoughts and feelings, although it is considered unreliable.

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7

Evolutionary psychology

The study of how biology and experiences contribute to the evolution of behavior and the mind.

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8

Psychology

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

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9

Psychiatry

The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of psychological disorders, including the ability to prescribe medication to address physical causes.

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10

Community psychology

The field of psychology that focuses on understanding how people interact in social environments and the impact of social institutions, with the goal of developing healthy environments for all.

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11

Wundt

Wilhelm Wundt (father of psych) is known for creating the first psychology laboratory (1879) and conducting experiments, such as the one where participants had to press a key as soon as they heard a sound, which revealed differences in conscious awareness and reaction times.

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12

James

William James explored the functions of emotion, habit, memory, willpower, and consciousness, contributing to the development of functionalism.

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13

Tichtner

Edward Titchener was known for his approach of introspection and structuralism in psychology.

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14

Hindsight bias

The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that one would have predicted it all along, also known as the "I knew it all along" phenomenon.

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15

Critical thinking

The process of examining assumptions, appraising the source, discerning hidden values, evaluating evidence, and assessing conclusions in order to make informed judgments.

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16

Theory

An explanation that uses an integrated set of principles to organize observations and predict behavior.

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17

hypothesis

testable prediction; implied by theory

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18

operational definition

carefully worded statement of exact procedures used in research

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19

double blind procedure

research participants + staff are ignorant about who receives the treatment or placebo

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20

control group

didn’t get the treatment; used to compared to other groups

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21

mode

most frequently occurring score

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22

range

difference between highest and lowest values

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23

statistical significance

statistical statement of how likely the result was by chance

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24

intuition

effortless, immediate, automatic feeling/thought; contrast conscious reasoning

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25

replication

doing it multiple times

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26

case study

analysis of an individual/group; trying to apply it to a bigger picture

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27

survey

asking people questions; obtain self reported attitudes/behaviors; random sampling

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28

population

entirety of the sample/subjects

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29

random sample

choosing randomly to avoid sampling bias

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30

naturalistic observation

watching or recording natural behavior; correlations

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31

placebo effect

result cause by expectation - think they got the treatment

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32

independent variable

factor manipulates; variable whose effect is being studied

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33

median

middle score

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34

standard deviation

how much the scores varied/deviated

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35

debrief

post experimental explanation of the study to participants

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36

longitudinal study

research with same people over a long period of time

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37

correlation

extent to which 2 factors vary together + predict the other

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38

correlation coefficient

statistical index of the relationship between 2 things (-1.00 - +1.00)

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39

illusory correlation

recall confirming instances for relationships; illusion to control illusion that uncontrollable events correlate with our actions; when one perceives a relationship between 2 variables when one exist

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40

experiment

research method where one manipulates +1 factor to observe effect; cause + effect result

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41

random assignment

assign randomly; minimize difference in groups

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42

experimental group

research participants who got the treatment

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43

dependent variable

outcome is measured; variable may change when independent variable changed

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44

mean

average

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45

normal curve

bell shape curve

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46

regression toward the mean

tendency for extent sources/events to regress to average/normal

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47

informed consent

giving potential subjects enough info about the study to let them choose

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48

confounding variable

other factors that may produce an effect

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49

industrial organizational

scientific study aimed to solve practical problems

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50

cross section study

similar people of different ages are compared with one another

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51

descriptive statistics

summarize + describe main features of a dataset

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52

inferential statistic

using data to draw conclusions or make predictions about a larger sample/population

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