Chemistry Paper 1 Summary

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What are the 3 states of matter?

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192 Terms

1

What are the 3 states of matter?

Solid, liquid, gas

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2

How are particles in a solid arranged?

Regular lattice, all touching

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3

State 2 properties of a solid.

Fixed volume and shape

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4

How do solid particles move?

Vibrate

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5

How are particles in a liquid arranged?

Random, all touching

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6

How do liquid particles move?

Flow freely over each other randomly

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7

State 2 properties of a liquid?

Fills containers, fixed volume

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8

How are particles in a gas arranged?

Random, not touching

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9

How do particles in a gas move?

In all directions constantly

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10

Do gases have lots or little energy?

Lots

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11

State 2 gas properties.

No fixed volume/shape, will fill container

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12

Which state(s) of matter can be compressed?

Gas

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13

State the change in state when a solid turns into a liquid.

Melting

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14

State the change in state when a liquid turns into a gas.

Evaporation

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15

State the change in state when a gas turns into a liquid.

Condensation

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16

State the change in state when a liquid turns into a solid.

Freezing

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17

State the change in state when a solid turns into a gas/gas turns into a solid.

Sublimation

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18

What is the temperature called where a solid turns into a liquid?

Melting point

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19

What is the temperature called where a liquid turns into a gas?

Boiling point

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20

What is a substance made of a single element or compound?

Pure

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21

What is a substance where 2 or more substances are present?

Mixture

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22

What type of substance melts over a range of temperatures?

Impure

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23

What type of substance melts at one temperature?

Pure

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24

What technique is used to separate an insoluble solid and a liquid?

Filtration

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25

What technique is used to separate a soluble solid and a liquid?

Evaporation

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26

What technique is used to separate 2 liquids?

Distillation

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27

What technique is used to separate a mix of soluble substances?

Chromotography

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28

In chromatography, what is the phase that does not move called?

Stationary phase

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29

In chromatography, what is the phase that moves called?

Mobile phase

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30

What must be used to draw the line on the chromatography paper?

Pencil (because it is not soluble)

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31

What is the equation used to work out Rf value?

distance travelled by the solute/distance travelled by the solvent

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32

What is the distance moved by the solvent called?

Solvent front

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33

What is water that is fit to drink called?

Potable water

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34

What is water from lakes, rivers, and reservoirs called?

Surface water

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35

What is water from aquifers called?

Ground water

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36

What is water that has been contaminated by a human process called?

Waste water

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37

During the water purifying process, what is the stage that screens out large objects called?

Filtration

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38

During the water purifying process, what is the stage where particles settle to the bottom called?

Sedimentation

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39

During the water purifying process, what is the stage where chlorine is added to kill bacteria called?

Chlorination

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40

What process do hot, dry countries use to get drinking water from sea water?

Desalination

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41

What subatomic particles are in the nucleus of an atom?

Protons and neutrons

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42

What subatomic particles orbit the nucleus of an atom?

Electrons

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43

What mass do protons have?

1

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44

What mass do neutrons have?

1

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45

What mass to electrons have

1/1840

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46

What charge do protons have?

+1

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47

What charge do neutrons have?

0

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48

What charge do electrons have?

-1

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49

How are positive ions formed?

Losing electrons

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50

How are negative ions formed?

Gaining electrons

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51

How are ionic compounds formed?

Transfer of electrons

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52

What 2 ions are ionic compounds made up of?

Positive and negative

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53

How are the ions arranged in an ionic compound?

Alternating lattice

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54

How are the ions in an ionic compound held together?

Strong electrostatic forces of attraction

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55

Do ionic compound have a high or low melting point?

High

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56

Why do solid ionic compounds not conduct electricity?

Ions aren’t free

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57

Why do molten ionic compounds conduct electricity?

Ions are free

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58

What is a covalent bond?

Shared pair of electrons

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59

What holds atoms together in a simple covalent compound?

Strong bonds

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60

What holds molecules together in a simple covalent bond?

Weak intermolecular forces

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61

Do simple covalent compounds have a high or low melting point?

Low

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62

Why do simple covalent bonds not conduct electricity?

No free electrons

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63

What is a polymer?

Molecules made up of long chains of carbon atoms

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64

What element are diamond, graphite, and fullerenes made from?

Carbon

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65

How many bonds does each atom in diamond have?

4

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66

What bonds does diamond contain?

Covalent

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67

How are atoms in diamonds arranged?

Lattice

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68

Does diamond have a high or low melting point?

High

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69

Is diamond strong?

Yes

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70

Why does diamond not conduct electricity?

No free electrons

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71

State use of diamond.

Cutting tools

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72

How many bonds does each atom in graphite have?

3

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73

What bonds does graphite contain?

Covalent

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74

How are the atoms in graphite arranged?

Layers of carbon atoms

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75

Does graphite have a high or low melting point?

High

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76

Is graphite strong?

No

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77

Why does graphite conduct electricity?

Free electrons between layers

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78

State a use of graphite.

Pencils

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79

Graphene is a layer of what?

Graphite

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80

How thick is graphene?

One atom thick

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81

How are atoms in fullerenes arranged?

Hexagons

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82

How many carbon atoms are in a Bucky Ball?

60

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83

What are the carbon atoms in fullerenes held together by?

Covalent bonds

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84

What is in between the Bucky Balls?

Weak intermolecular forces

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85

Do fullerenes have a high melting point?

No

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86

Why do fullerenes conduct electricity?

Free electrons

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87

State a use of fullerenes.

Catalysts

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88

What structure does a metal have?

Giant structure

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89

Metals contain regular rows of what?

Positive ions

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90

What are the rows of particles in a metal surrounded by?

Sea of delocalised electrons

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91

Do metals have a high or low melting point?

High

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92

What does malleable mean?

Can be hammered into shape

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93

What does sonorous mean?

Produces a deep ringing sound

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94

What does ductile mean?

Can be made into a thin wire

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95

Why are metals malleable?

The layers of positive ions slide over each other

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96

Can metals conduct electricity?

Yes

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97

Where are metals in the periodic table?

Left

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98

State 3 properties of metals.

Shiny, solid, dense

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99

State 2 properties of non-metals.

Low melting point, poor conductor of electricity

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100

State an advantage of using a dot and cross diagram.

Shows where electrons come from

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