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john cabot (c. 1450-1498)

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john cabot (c. 1450-1498)

italian explorer sent by england’s king henry VII to explore the northeastern coast of north america (1497-1498)

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christopher columbus (1451-1506)

-explorer who stumbled upon the west indies in 1492 while in search of a new water route to asia

-made three subsequent voyages and briefly served as a colonial administrator on the island of hispaniola (present-day haiti)

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hernan cortes (1485-1547)

spanish conquistador who defeated the aztec empire and claimed mexico for spain

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robert de la salle (1643-1687)

french explorer who led an expedition down the mississippi river in the 1680s

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bartolome de las casa (1474-1566)

-spanish missionary who worked to abolish the encomienda system

-documented the mistreatment of indians in the spanish colonies

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francisco pizarro (c. 1475-1541)

spanish conquistador who defeated the incas in 1532 and founded the city of lima, peru

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elizabeth I (1533-1603)

-protestant queen of england

-firmly secured the anglican church and inaugurated maritime exploration and conquest

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henry VIII (1491-1547)

tudor monarch who launched the protestant reformation in england when he broke away from the catholic church to divorce his wife

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james I (1566-1625)

-supported overseas colonization, granting a charter to the virginia company in 1606 for a settlement in the new world

-previously james VI of scotland

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james oglethorpe (1696-1785)

lead the founding of georgia as a haven for debtors avoiding imprisonment

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pocahontas (c. 1595-1617)

-daughter of chief powhatan

-served as a mediator between Indians and the colonists

-married john rolfe (1614)

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chief powhtatan (c.1540-1618)

-chief of the powhatan indians and father of pocahontas

-staged the kidnapping and mock execution of captain john smith (1607)

-led powhatan indians in the 1st anglo-powhatan war and negotiated peace in 1614

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sir walter raleigh (c.1552-1618)

english adventurer who sponsored the failed settlements of roanoke (north carolina in 1585-1587)

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john rolfe (1585-1622)

english colonist who married pocahontas (1614) to confirm the peace of the 1st anglo-powhatan war

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captain john smith (1580-1631)

-english adventurer who took control of jamestown (1608) and helped the colony survive

-established ties with powhatan indians

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sir edmund andros (1637-1714)

-administrator of the dominion of new england (created in 1686)

-established strict control with town meetings and unjust taxes

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william bradford (1509-1657)

-leader of the separatist pilgrims who left england for holland

-later sailed on the mayflower and establish the colony of massachusetts

-wrote plymouth plantation (piece of classical american literature)

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john calvin (1509-1564)

-french protestant reformer whose religious teachings formed the theological basis for new england puritans, scottish presbytarians, french huguenots and members of the dutch reformed church

-argued that humans were inherently weak and wicked, and believed in a god, who predestined select individuals for salvation

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charles II (1630-1685)

-took the throne during the restoration of the monarchy in 1660

-sought to reestablish firm control over the colonies and to end the period of (relative) independence in the colonies

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henry hudson (c.1565-1611)

english explorer who ventured into new york bay and up the hudson river for dutch in 1609 in search of the northwest passage

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anne hutchinson (c.1591-1643)

-religious dissenter brought to trial for heresy in massachusetts bay after arguing that she need not follow god’s laws or man’s, and claiming direct revelation from god

-banished from puritan colony and tried to form new colony near rhode island (but she was killed by indians)

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martin luther (1483-1546)

-german priest who touched off the protestant reformation

-his theological beliefs form the basis of lutheranism

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metacom aka king philip (c.1638-1676)

-wampanoag chief who led a brutal campaign against puritan settlements in new england between 1675 and 1676 to halt westward expansion

-was captured and killed (eventually)

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william penn (1644-1718)

-quaker activist who founded pennsylvania in 1681

-established friendly relations with native indians and attracted settlers to pennsylvania mostly due to religious toleration and acceptance

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roger williams (c.1603-1683)

-salem minister who advocated a complete break from the church of england

-criticized the massachusetts bay colony for taking land from indians

-banished for heresay and established a small community in present-day rhode island

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john winthrop (1588-1649)

-1st governor of massachusetts bay colony

-puritan that helped ensure the prosperity of the newly-established colony and enforce purtian rule

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duke of york (1633-1701)

-catholic english monarch who reigned as james II from 1685 until he was deposed during the glorious revolution in 1689

-got new york named after him when the english seized new amsterdam from the dutch (1664)

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nathaniel bacon (1647-1676)

virginia planter who led a rebellion against governor william berkeley in 1676 to protest berkeley’s refusal to protect frontier settlers from indian attacks

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william berkeley (1606-1677)

-royal governor of virginia

refused to protect citizens against indian attacks, eventually leading to bacon’s rebellion

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anthony johnson (?-1670)

-african slave who purchased his freedom and himself became a slave holder in virginia

-serves as a testament to the relative fluidity of early colonial society

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johnathan edwards (1703-1758)

-new england minister whose sermons helped touch off the 1st great awakening

-emphasized human helplessness and depravity and touted that salvation could be attained through god’s grace alone

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george whitefield (1714-1770)

-english preacher whose rousing sermons throughout the colonies sparked the 1st great awakening

-his emotionalism distinguished him from traditional, “old light,” ministers who embraced a more reasoned, stoic approach to religious practice

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edward braddock (1695-1755)

british general whose detachment of british and colonial soldiers was routed by french and indian forces at fort duquesne

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samuel de champlain (c.1567-1635)

-french soldier and explorer

-dubbed the “father of new france” for establishing the city of quebec and fighting alongside the huron Indians to repel the iroquois

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louis XIV (1638-1715)

-long reigning french monarch who sent explorers throughout north america, establishing outposts in present day canada and louisiana

-oversaw the construction of the palace at versailles

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william pitt (1708-1778)

british parliamentarian who rose to prominence during the french and indian war as the brilliant tactician behind britain’s victory over france

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pontiac (c.1720-1769)

-ottowa chief who led an uprising against the british during the french and indian war

-succumbed after british troops distributed small-pox infected blankets to them

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james wolfe (1727-1759)

british commander who skillfully outmaneuvered french forces in the battle of quebec during the french and indian war

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samuel adams (1722-1803)

-boston revolutionary who organized massachusetts’ committees of correspondence to help sustain opposition to british policies

-later served as governor of boston

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crispus attucks (1723-1770)

-runaway slave and leader of the protests in the boston massacre

-first to die during the massacre

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george III (1738-1820)

-british monarch during the run-up to the american revolution

-contributed to the imperial crisis with his assertion of britain’s power over the colonies

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george grenville (1712-1770)

british prime minister who fueled tensions between britain and the colonies through his strict enforcement of navigation laws and his support for the sugar and stamp acts

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john hancock (1737-1793)

-boston smuggler and prominent leader of the colonial resistance

-served as president of the second continental congress

-became the first governor of massachusetts (1780)

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thomas hutchinson (1711-1780)

-royal governor of massachusetts before the american revolution

-insisted that east india company ships unload in boston harbor, mistakenly prompting the boston tea party

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marquis de lafayette (1757-1834)

-french nobleman who served as major general in the colonial army during the american revolution

-aided the newly-independent colonies in securing french support

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baron von steuben (1730-1794)

-german-born inspector general of the continental army

-helped train the novice colonial militia in the art of warfare

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charles townshed (1725-1767)

british prime minister whose ill-conceived duties on the colonies, the townshed acts, sparked fierce protests in the colonies and escalated the imperial conflict

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benedict arnold (1743-1807)

-revolutionary war general turned traitor

-held off a british invasion of lake champlain (upstate new york)

-later switched sides, plotting to sell out the continentak stronghold at west point to the redcoats (his plan failed)

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lord charles cornwallis (1738-1805)

british general during the revolutionary war who lost in south carolina and retreated to virginia, where his defeat at yorktown marked the beginning of the end for britain’s efforts to suppress the colonial rebellion

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george rogers clark (1752-1818)

american frontiersman who captured a series of british forts along the ohio river during the revolutionary war

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benjamin franklin (1706-1790)

-american printer, inventor, statesman and revolutionary

-became a leading revolutionary and signatory of the declaration of independence

-served as commissioner to france during revolutionary war and secured the nation’s support for the american cause

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richard henry lee (1733-1794)

-virginia planter and revolutionary, who served as a member of the continental congress

-became the 1st u.s. senator from virginia under the new constitution

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thomas paine (1737-1809)

-british-born pamphleteer and author of “common sense”

-supporter of the french revolution and became increasingly radical in his views

-published the “the age of reason” (1794) which cost him the support of his American allies

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patrick henry (1736-1799)

-american revolutionary and champion of states’ rights

-became a prominent anti-federalist during the ratification debate

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daniel shays (1747-1825)

revolutionary war veteran who led a group of debtors and impoverished backcountry farmers in a rebellion against the massachusetts government in 1786, calling for paper money, lighter taxes and an end to property seizures for debt

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john adams (1735-1826)

-american revolutionary, statesman and 2nd president of u.s.

-helped guide the continental congress toward a declaration of independence from britain

-served as minister to france, britain and the netherlands; while president, his administration suffered from federalist infighting, international turmoil, and domestic uproar over the alien and sedition acts, all of which contributed to his defeat in the election of 1800

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alexander hamilton (1757-1804)

-revolutionary war soldier and 1st treasury secretary of the u.s.

-fierce proponent of a strong national government and convincingly argued for the constitution’s ratification in the federalist papers

-he advocated the assumption of state debts to bolster the nation’s credit and the establishment of a national bank to print sound currency and boost commerce

-died from a gunshot wound suffered during a duel with then-vice president aaron burr

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john jay (1745-1829)

-american revolutionary that negotiated the treaty of paris and the jay treat (1794)

-served as 1st chief justice of supreme court (1789-1795)

-became governor of new york after being supreme justice

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louis XVI (1754-1793)

-king of france (1774 to 1792)

-beheaded during french revolution

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charles maurice de talleyrand (1754-1838)

french foreign minister whose attempts to solicit bribes from american envoys in the infamous xyz affair, which prompted widespread calls for war with france

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george washington (1732-1799)

-revolutionary war general and 1st president of the u.s.

-established himself as a military hero during the french and indian war

-served as commander in chief of the continental army Army during the war of independence, securing key victories at Saratoga and Yorktown

-elected president under the new constitution in 1788

-focused primarily on strengthening the national government, establishing a sound financial system and maintaining american neutrality amidst the escalating european conflict

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napoleon bonaparte (1769-1821)

-french emperor who waged a series of wars against his neighbors on the european continent from 1800 until his final defeat at Waterloo in 1815

-relinquished france’s remaining north american territories by selling louisiana territory to u.s. for money to end haitian rebellion

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aaron burr (1756-1836)

-revolutionary war soldier and vice president under thomas jefferson

-famous for fatally wounding hamilton in a duel in 1804

-led a failed plot to separate the trans-mississippi west from the u.s. in 1806

-acquitted of treason and fled to france where he tried to convince napoleon to ally with britain against the u.s.

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samuel chase (1741-1811)

-federalist supreme court justice who criticized republican policies

-charged with impeachment by house of reps. in 1804, but was acquitted

-he served on the court until his death

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william clark (1770-1838)

-joined meriwether lewis in leading the expedition of louisiana territory (1804–1806)

-played a key role in shaping america’s indian policy, seeking to strengthen american relations with the indians through trade

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thomas jefferson (1743-1826)

-author of the declaration of independence, ambassador to France, and 2nd president of u.s.

-leader of the democratic-republican party and advocated a limited role for the national government

-oversaw significant expansion of the federal state through the purchase of louisiana territory and the enactment of the embargo of 1807

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toussiant l’ouverture (1743-1803)

-haitian revolutionary who led a successful slave uprising and helped establish haiti’s independence in 1797

-was captured by a french force sent to reestablish control over the island

-shipped back to france and imprisoned for treason, he succumbed to pneumonia in 1803

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meriweather lewis (1744-1809)

-american soldier and explorer who led the famous expedition through louisiana territory (1804– 1806)

-briefly served as governor of upper louisiana territory before dying of an apparent suicide in 1809

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james madison (1751-1836)

-key author of the constitution, co-author of the federalist papers, and 4th president of the u.s.

-leading advocate of a strong national government in the 1780s; joined Thomas Jefferson and the democratic-republicans in advocating a more limited role for the federal state

-as president, he inherited the conflict over trade with britain and france, which eventually pushed him to declare war on britain in 1812

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john marshall (1755-1835)

-chief justice of the supreme court from 1801-his death (1835)

-strengthened the role of the courts by establishing the principle of judicial review

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tecumseh (c.1768-1813)

-shawnee warrior who sought to establish a confederacy of indian tribes east of the mississippi

-opposed individual tribes’ selling of land to the u.s., arguing the land belonged to all the native peoples

-after 1811, he allied with the british, fighting fiercely against the u.s. until death

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tenskwatawa aka “the prophet (1775-1836)

-shawnee religious leader who led a spiritual revival, emphasizing indian unity and cultural renewal and urging indians to limit contact with americans

-lost his following in 1811 after he was defeated by william henry harrison at the battle of tippecanoe

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francis scott key (1779-1843)

american author and lawyer who composed the “star spangled banner” while observing the bombardment of fort mchenry from the deck of a british ship where he was detained

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thomas macdonough (1783-1825)

american naval officer who secured a decisive victory over a british fleet at the battle of plattsburg, preventing british invasion of new york

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james monroe (1758-1831)

-revolutionary war soldier, statesman and 5th president of u.s.

-supported protective tariffs and a national bank, but maintained a jeffersonian opposition to federally-funded internal improvements

-sought to transcend partisanship, even undertaking a goodwill tour of the states in 1817, but his presidency was rocked by bitter partisan and sectional conflicts

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oliver hazard perry (1785-1819)

-american naval officer whose decisive victory over a british fleet on lake erie during the war of 1812 reinvigorated american morale and paved the way for general william genry harrison’s victory at the battle of thames (1813)

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john quincy adams (1767-1848)

-son of 2nd president john adams Adams and served as secretary of state under james monroe before becoming the 6th president of u.s.

-strong advocate of national finance and improvement and faced opposition from states’ rights advocates in the south and west

-his controversial election—the allegedly “corrupt bargain” of 1824—and his lack of political acumen further hampered his presidential agenda

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santa anna (1794-1876)

mexican general, president and dictator, who opposed texas’ independence and later led the mexican army in the war against u.s.

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stephen austin (1793-1836)

-established the first major anglo settlements in texas under an agreement with the mexican government

-advocated for local texans’ rights(especially slavery), creating conflict with mexicans

-briefly imprisoned by santa anna for inciting rebellion; returned to texas in 1836 to serve as secretary of state of the newly-independent republic until his death later that year

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nicholas biddle (1786-1884)

-banker, financier, and president of the second Bank of the u.s. from 1822 until the bank’s charter expired in 1836

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black hawk (1767-1838)

-sauk war chief who led the sauk and fox resistance against eviction under the indian removal act in illinois and wisconsin

-brutally crushed by american forces and surrendered in 1832 and lived out his days on a reservation in iowa

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john c. calhoun (1782-1850)

-vice president under andrew jackson; became a u.s. senator from south carolina

-fierce supporter of states’ rights and advocated south carolina’s position during the nullification crisis

-in the 1840s-50s, he defended slavery and accused free-state northerners of conspiring to free the slaves

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henry clay (1777-1852)

-secretary of state and u.s. senator from kentucky; known as the “great compromiser” for helping to negotiate the missouri compromise (1820), the compromise tariff (1833) and the compromise of 1850

-national republican turned whig; advocated a strong national agenda of internal improvements and protective tariffs, known as the american system

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william henry harrison (1773-1841)

-hero of the battle of tippecanoe and 9th president of u.s.

-whig that won the 1840 election

-died of pneumonia just four weeks after his inauguration

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sam houston (1793-1863)

-president of the republic of texas and u.s. senator

-led texas to independence in 1836 as commander in chief of texas army

-elected to the u.s. senate and later returned to serve as governor of texas until 1861, when he was removed from office for refusing to take an oath of loyalty to the confederacy

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andrew jackson a(1767-1945)

-war hero, congressman and 6th president of u.s. (democrat)

-ushered in a new era in american politics, advocating white manhood suffrage and cementing party loyalties through the spoils system

-he dismantled the Bank of the u.s., asserted federal supremacy in the nullification crisis, and oversaw the harsh policy of indian removal in the south

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martin van buren (1782-1862)

-jacksonian democrat who became the 8th president of the u.s. after serving as vice president during andrew jackson’s 2nd term

-presided over the “hard times” wrought by the panic of 1837, clinging to jackson’s monetary policies and rejecting federal intervention in the economy

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denmark vesey (c.1767-1822)

-free black who orchestrated an aborted slave uprising in charleston, south carolina in 1822

-planned was uncovered before he could put it in motion, and he and thirty-four accomplices were put to death

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daniel webster (1782-1852)

-lawyer, congressman and secretary of state

-teamed up with henry clay in the bank war against andrew jackson in 1832

-opposed the annexation of texas to avoid sectional conflict, but later urged the north to support the compromise of 1850

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john deere (1804-1886)

inventor of the steel plow, which revolutionized farming in the midwest

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robert fulton (1765-1815)

pennsylvania-born painter-engineer, who constructed the first operating steam boat, the clermont (1807)

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cyrus field (1819-1892)

promoter of the first transatlantic cable which linked Ireland and newfoundland in 1854; the first cable went dead, Field lobbied for a heavier cable, which was finally laid in 1866

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elias howe (1819-1867)

massachusetts-born inventor of the sewing machine

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cyrus mccormick (1809-1885)

inventor of the mccormick mower-reaper

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samuel f. b. morse (1791-1872)

-inventor of the telegraph and morse code

-led the effort to connect washington and baltimore by telegraph and transmitted the first long-distance message in may 1884

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issac singer (1811-1875)

inventor and manufacturer who made his fortune by improving on elias howe’s sewing machine

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samuel slater (1768-1835)

british-born mechanic and father of the american “factory system,” establishing textile mills throughout new england

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eli whitney (1765-1825)

invented the cotton gin and interchangeable parts

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louisa may alcott (1832-1888)

new england author; most notable for writing “little women”

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susan b. anthony (1820-1906)

-reformer and woman suffragist who advocated for temperance and women’s rights in new york

-established the abolitionist women’s loyal league during the civil war

-founded the national woman suffrage association (1869)

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