MCAT PSYCH CH 6: Social Psychology

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self-identity

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130 Terms

1

self-identity

a person's sense of who he or she is and of where he or she fits in the social structure

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self-consciousness

a distinct level of consciousness in which the person's attention is drawn to the self as an object (aware of physical, psychological, and social attributes)

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self-schema

beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information

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Personal indentity

your sense of yourself as a unique individual

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Social Identity

the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships

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Self Reference Effect

tendency to better remember information relevant to ourselves

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Carl Rogers

founder of the humanistic psychology

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Ideal Self

Who you should be based on what you have experienced

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Real Self

Who you actually are

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Self-Efficacy

One's belief in his or her own ability.

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internal-external locus of control

the tendency to believe that things happen because we control them versus believing that good and bad outcomes are out of our control

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Learned Helplessness

the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past

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Self-Esteem

one's feelings of high or low self-worth

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Looking Glass Self

A person's sense of self develops from interpersonal interactions with others in society and perception of others

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Generalized Other

the common behavioral expectations of general society

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Socialization

the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as members of that society

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Formal Norms

Written down rules that are precisely defined, publicly presented, and often accompanied by strict penalties for those who violate them

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Mores

norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance

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Folkways

norms for routine or casual interaction

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Taboo

A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom.

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Anomie

a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable; too little social regulation; normlessness

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Non-normative Behavior

viewed as incorrect because it challenges shared values and institutions, thus threatening social structure and cohesion

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Differential Association

Edwin Sutherland's term to indicate that people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant

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labeling theory

the idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions

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self-fulfilling prophecy

an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true.

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Agents of Social Control

the authorities and social institutions that enforce norms and rules, attempt to prevent rule violations, and identify and punish rule violators

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Merton's Strain Theory

deviance occurs when culturally approved goals cannot be achieved by culturally approved means

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Kohlberg's stages of moral development

Stages cannot be skipped, but adults usually only obtain the fourth stage and do not go beyond. v Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment (how can I avoid punishment?) v Stage 2: Self-Interest Orientation (what's in it for me?) v Stage 3: Interpersonal Accord and Conformity (What will make others like me?) v Stage 4: Authority and Social-Order Maintaining Orientation (What am I supposed to do?) v Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation (The greatest good for the greatest number of people) v Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles: Morality is based on abstract reasoning using universal ethical principles; laws are only valid if they are grounded in justice

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Attribution Theory

is rooted in social psychology and attempts to explain how individuals view behavior

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Dispositional Attribution:

Behavior is attributed to internal causes

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Situational Attribution

Behavior is attributed to external causes

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Consistency:

If a behavior someone is expressing is consistent with how they act, you would dispositional attribute that behavior. The converse is also true

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Distinctiveness:

: If the behavior seems indiscriminate, it would be attributed to dispositional behavior. If it was directed, it would be situational attribution

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Consensus:

v If only one person in the group feels a certain way, it would be dispositional. If everyone feels the same about it, then it is likely situational.

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Fundamental Attribution Theory:

v People underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of a person's character or personality -> People are how they act.

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Actor-Observer Bias:

v Tendency to blame our actions on the situation and blame the actions of others on their personalities

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Self-Serving Bias:

Attribute successes to ourselves and our failures to others or the external environment

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Optimism Bias

v Bad things happen to other people, but not to us

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Just World Phenomenon

v Karma

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Hindsight Bias

Claiming that an event was predictable after it has already occurred

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Halo Effect:

People have inherently good or bad natures rather than looking back at individual characteristics

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Physical Attractiveness Stereotype

More pretty means more better

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Western cultures tend to be more

individualistic

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while eastern cultures

v external attribution is more common

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Social Perception:

Understanding of others and the social world. It is the initial information we process about other people in order to try to understand their mindsets and intentions.

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Social Cognition:

Ability to store social perception

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False Consensus

When we assume that others agree with us (regardless of if they do or not)

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Projection Bias

v When we assume that others have the same beliefs that we do, founded or not

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Stereotypes:

Unjust simplificationsv

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Prejudice

v Thoughts, attitudes, and feelings someone holds about a certain group

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Discrimination

Acting a certain way to a group

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Racism:

v Collective definition for discrimination, prejudice, stereotypes

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Illusory Correlation

Created between group of people and characteristic based on unique cases (black people are all good at sports because Michael Jordan is

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Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

If you believe a group is so and then do not interact with them, your opinion on them will only be further reinforced.

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Stereotype Threat

A self-fulfilling fear that one will be evaluated based on that negative stereotype.

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Ethnocentrism

The tendency to judge people from another culture by the standards of ones own culture

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Cultural Relativism:

Judging another culture based on its own standards. Understanding that child labor is essential in India while it is seen as horrendous in the states

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Group:

Collection of any number of people that interact and identify with each other and have similar norms, values, and expectations.

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Primary Groups:

v These groups are usually smaller and those which the person engages with frequently, long term, and emotional ways

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Secondary Groups:

v Larger and more impersonal, and usually active for a shorter period

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Expressive Functions

v meeting emotional needs

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Instrumental Functions

Meeting pragmatic needs

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In-Group

v Belongs to and feels an integral part of

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Out-Group

: Does not belong to

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Reference Group

Standard measure that people compare themselves to. In a study group you benchmark yourself to the top performers

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Dyad

Two-member group. More intimate, but also requires more active cooperation and participation

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Triad:

Three-member group. Each person shares an individual relationship with each other member

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Aggregate:

v People who exist in the same space but do not interact or share a common sense of identity. MCAT study group that go to a coffee shop every week.

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Category

v People who share similar characteristics but are not otherwise tied together, such as every MCAT examinee this year

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Bureaucracy

Administrative body and the process by which this body accomplishes work tasks. These arise from the advanced division of labor. Invented by Max Weber.

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McDonaldization

v Predictability, efficiency, calculability, and control

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Iron Law of Oligarchy

v As organizations revolutionize and develop, and oligarchy will always arise where top management seeks to defend its position after specialization

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Mere Presence

v People really just coexisting. Going to the grocery store

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Social Facilitation Effect:

We can do simple more well rehearsed tasks in the presence of other people

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Deindividualization:

v Lack of self-awareness and is the result of disconnection of behaviors from attitudes

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Group Polarization

v The intensification of peoples already held viewpoints when placed into a group. People tend towards the extreme of their previously held beliefs

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Informational influence

v Most common idea that emerges are the ones that favor the dominant viewpoint

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Normative Influence

v Taking a stronger stance to seem like more part of the group

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Groupthink

v People don't want to rock the boat so everyone seems like they are in agreeance

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Mind guarding

Preventing dissenting opinions from permeating the group by filtering out facts and info that goes against the common group belief

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Deviance

Violation of society's standards of conduct or expectations

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Stigma

A demeaning label that is attached to a large group based on physical or behavioral qualities

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Solomon Asch:

Tested the effects of peer pressure with simple questions asked in isolation then with confederates designed to go against the grain

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Stanley Milgram

People were told to shock a student trying to memorize something, and they willingly cranked the machine to 450V.

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Compliance:

v Motivated by the desire to seek reward or avoid punishment.

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Identification

Desire to be like another person or group.

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Internalization

v Motivated by values and beliefs that have been integrated into one's own value system.

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Normative Social Influence

v : People conform because they want to be liked and accepted by others.

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Informational Social Influence

Process of complying because we want to do the right thing and we feel like others "know something I don't know

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Factors that Influence Conformity:

v Group Size (3-5 more effective), Unanimity (one person disagreeing can start something), Cohesion (people with agree with those they identify with), Status, Accountability (people will get in line if they are actually responsible), No Prior Commitments

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Master Status

v The status that dominated the others and determines that person's place in society

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Ascribed Status

v Assigned to people regardless of their own efforts, such as gender and race

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Achieved Statuses

v Are considered to be due to peoples efforts

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Social Roles

v Expectations for people of a given social status

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Role Conflict:

v When society has conflicting expectations for the multiple statuses held by one person (male nurse)

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Role Strain

v When a single status results in conflicting expectations. (not wanting to be too gay but also wanting to be gay enough)

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Role Exit:

When you leave a role. Graduating from high school then going to college

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Social network:

A web of social relationships including deeply linked relationships as well as friends of friends

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Utilitarian Organizations

Members are paid for their efforts

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Normative Organizations

: Common goals drives new members

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