Philosophy reviewer 1st quarter

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Reflect philosophicaly

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127 Terms

1

Reflect philosophicaly

Is to think about an important question that does not have a definite answer.

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2

Philosophical

Questions that matter to us for they reflect our desire to understand, these questions are considered _________.

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Philosophy

Allows us the freedom to ask questions

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Particular

Refers to a part of the whole

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Universal

Pertains to the whole

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Purpose

Is like a thread that is woven through everything that happens

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Martin heidegger

For _______________ a scientific question is alwayd confined to the particular Whereas a philosophical question leads to the totality of beings and inquiries into the whole

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Freedom

When we ask about ___________, we venture into an inquiry about the whole, it is no longer a particular problem but a universal one.

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Limits

Are removed and the inquiry is broadened

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10

Martin Heidegger

Responsible for the term “hermeneutics of facticity” which simply means that people interpret things as they understand it

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11

Plato

One of the most famous philosophers and is freek Athenian. He was a student of Socrates and teacher to Aristotle

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12

Possible answers to Philosophical questions

Require adequate justification or rational basis. Answers that sound right or seem right will simply not do

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13

Plato

Warned as early as 360 Bce that there were things that deceive, confuse, or mislead in this world

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14

True

A person is responsible for the answers he she holds on to

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15

Human faculty of reason

Philosophers rely on the __________ as they philosophize

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16

Dialogues

Illustrates how dialects is an effective means of examining and evaluating truth claims

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Dialects

Is an art of refutation

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18

Socrates

He conversed with people from all walks of life using question and answer, living out his famous advice “know thyself”

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Claim or propositions

Requires sufficient proof and local argument to be regarded as true

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Thesis and antithesis

Cumlinates into a synthesis

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Thesis and antithesis

A resolution of opposing views

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Dialects

Is indesoensable since it oeads us closer to the truth

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23

Karl marx

Introduced the the concept “historical materialism”

Proposed there are dialectical pattern in history

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24

Plato

Claimed that philosophy begins in wonder

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25

Wonder

Is the beginning fornit stimulates us to venture into philosophy

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Curiosity

Is usually directed to a single, fleeting, and momentary object that captures our interest

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27

Philosophy

Is understood as an activity in pursuit of wisdom

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28

Philo as love and sophia as wisdom

Etymology of philosophy

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29

Theoretical and practical

2 kinds of wisdom for Aristotle

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Theoretical wisdom

Is to know necessary truths and their logical consequences

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Practical wisdom

Deals woth knowledge in the realm of action

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32

Intuitions

To arrive at truth

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33

Aristotle

Was the student of plato

Claimed that our rational faculty is the best element in us

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Rational faculty

Answers questions and overcomes ignorance

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35

Ignorance

Makes philosophy possible

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36

Cosmocentric, theocentric and anthropocentric

The 3 philosophical views

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37

Cosmocentric view

Wonders about the origin of the universe

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Theocentric

Greatly influenced by Christianity, everything is second to god

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Anthropocentric view

Subjectivity and individualism centere

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Bertrand Russell

Explained that progress in the scientific field made man realize the practical utility of science as a technique

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41

Rationalism

Is committed to the view that knowledge is acquired through reason independent of sense experience

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Rene Descartes

Said clear and distinct ideas cannot be doubted unlike the data of the senses clear and distinct ideas are the foundation of knowledge

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43

Empiricism

All knowledge is ultimately derived from sense

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44

Three claims of Socrates

Know thyself

The unixamined life is not worth living

Virtue is knowledge of good and bad

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45

Pilosopo

Someone who reasons poorly

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46

Fallacy

Erenous reasoning

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Equivocation

Deceives by using a word in two different ways within an argument

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48

Argumentum ad hominem

Attacking a person instead of his or her argument

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49

Pilosopo tasyo

Character in jose rizals noli me tangere is a social critic and a gadfly simular to Socrates

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50

Philosophical phenomenon

Always investigates a phenomenon

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51

Phenomenon

Anything that happens

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52

Science

Observation through experiments and calculations are the data used to arrive at a conclusion

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53

Philosophy

Uses phenomenon or raw experience to form the basis for truth

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54

Immanuel kant

Claimed that the data we get form sensory experience or empiricism are not things in themselves or things as they really are but are instead things as they appear to us

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55

Epistemology

Devoted to the problem of knowledge

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56

Plato

According to _____ knowledge is certain whereas opinion is not certain

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Knowledge

Is seing things as they really are

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Syllogism

A deductive argument of s certain form where a conclusion is inferred from two premises

Made by Aristotle to demonstrate the truth of a claim or conclusion

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59

Rene Descartes

Father of modern philosophy

Introduced the notion of indubitability

I think therefore i exist

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60

notion of indubitability

statements that are false, doubtful or uncertain cannot be used as a basis for knowledge

uses doubt as a test to distinguish the indubitable from the dubitable

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opinion

can be doubted

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knowledge

is indubitable thus certain

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63

post modernism

attack on the notion of an objective reality

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64

Jacques Derrida

Maker of deconstruction

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65

deconstruction

challenged traditional views in philosophy by looking at structures of language to open up limitless interpretations

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structuralism

a doing away with the author and all that limits reading or interpretation

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correspondence theory

oldest model of truth

true propositions are those that correspond with reality

a claim has to be true to correspond with an object or fact. otherwise the claim is false

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68

linguistic turn

context principle

it is only in the context of the sentence that a word has meaning

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phenomenology

claims that every consciousness is consciousness of something

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objectivity

means to detach yourself from the things you are observing

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71

natural attitude

attitude when we are comfortable with what we already know

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transcedental attitude

attitude when we try our best to direct our consciousness to investigate the essence of every phenomenon

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existentialism

the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will.

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existential Phenomenology

designed to make us see what every existing thing means to someone who experiences it by a thorough reflection.

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"existence precedes essence”

jean paul sarte a respected existentialist proclaimed:

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an existentialist

believes that any person can create meanings and he/she must be responsible for it

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subjectivity

creating meaning for oneself

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hermeneutics

tools that interpret text

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79

hermeneute

someone who performs hermeneutics

helps the philosopher reflect

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80

theory of communicative action

mean to help us arrive at a kind of understanding and decision in the public sphere.

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81

Phylosophical analysis

emphasizes clarity rigorousness and argument

Analyzing statements or propositions using logic

founded by George Edward Moore and Bertrand Russel

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82

phenomenological-existential method

combine the best practice of phenomenology and the existentialists

learning to bracket ideas about an object and looking for essences or ideas that remain in your consciousness in relation to the object you are conscious of

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83

Rizal

believes that because human being is endowed with reason he/she wonders and questions everything including his/her existence

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84

Immanuel Kant and Rizal

said the human being is endowed with reason, and that he/she is autonomous with self regulating will, he/she has the difficulty to deal with the simple question “who am i” with certainty

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85

Karl Jaspers

He believed that the being of human person is lost in a context of total determination

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86

boundary situtations

situations that are inescapable and inevitably breaks the ordinary patterns of human existence

they cause pauses and give opportunity to look into the question seriously

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Duality of body and soul ( dualism)

is the view held by those who believe that our body is separate and distinct from our soul

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soul or spirit

philosophically discussed as mind

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90

the mind (mental)

is not to be mistaken for the brain (physical)un

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91

unity of body and soul(monism)

the belief that the body and soul together make one entity

believed by christians

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92

St. Thomas Aquinas

claimed that body and soul are not two entities that interact with each other but are one being made up of matter and form

the being ceases to exist in death

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93

John Locke’s notion of inner sense

all thoughts are conscious

our consciousness is the criterion for personal identity

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94

The relation of I and the body

A human being is conscious that he/she is limited because he/she thinks, feels, and acts through his/her body

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95

Immanuel Kant

also interpreted by philosophers of mind as providing the basis for a rationalist approach

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96

contemplating

can sometimes bring terror and despair among other things

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97

Reason

Philosophers are in agreement that human beings have this human faculty

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98

Gabriel Marcel

For him the possibility of such encounters unfolds through “my body”

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99

i have my body

implies possession and does not only show authority over it, but also great responsibility.

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my body

is the main basis fro reflection and self consciousness

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