Ichino Midterm Review

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Why did Europeans come to America?

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Why did Europeans come to America?

Came to create "a city upon a hill," an ideal community founded on moral & religious beliefs

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Who helped the colonists learn to make the wilderness productive?

The native Americans

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The U.S. arose from what ideas?

Arose from enlightenment ideas — that people are basically good & can use reason to create a better society

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How did the settlers feel towards the new land? How did the Native Americans feel towards the land?

To the settlers, the new land was a developing & often frightening mystery. To the Native Americans, the land was beloved & well-known

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Native American songs & legends showed the connection between...?

Between people & nature

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What are some early American themes?

-wilderness (nature)-community & independence-individualism & self-reliance

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What is uniquely American about these themes?

-the place-the past-the vision

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What is oral tradition?

Narratives handed down through many generations by word of mouth & only recorded in detail within the last hundred years; often depicts the connection between Native Americans & nature; oratory was an important part

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What is an origin myth?

A traditional story that explains how life began. Often, they also explain how a feature of the world was formed or how a specific social custom began

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What are archetypes?

Symbols, patterns, or character types that repeat across cultures

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Africans were kidnapped & brought to the Americas to work as...?

Slaves; living as a slave meant no rights & poor treatment

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What is a slave narrative?

An autobiographical account of a person's life as a slave; most have an implicit persuasive purpose: to expose the evils of slavery

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What is an autobiography?

The story of a person's life written by that person

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What hardships did the European explorers face upon arriving in the new land?

-unfamiliar land-no food

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How did the Native Americans aid the early Europeans?

Taught them how to build adequate shelter & how to cultivate crops

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What are exploration narratives?

These accounts generally provide information in chronological order; the Europeans who first came to the Americas related their experiences with such firsthand accounts of their travels

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What is a sermon?

A speech given in a house of worship for the purpose of religious instruction

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Why did the Puritans come to America?

Came in search of religious freedom

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What did the Puritans believe about the Bible & about religion?

-believed the Bible was the sole expression of God's will-believed religion was the basis of everything, including literature & education

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In the Navajo origin legend, how are the first man & woman created?

Created from wind & ears of corn

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In the Navajo origin legend, what does the wind represent?

The wind comes to represent life, an idea reflected in the fact that humans breathe to survive

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The Navajo origin legend illuminates the Navajo belief in...?

Belief in the wind's sacredness as well as the importance of corn & deer as sources of sustenance

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What 2 things do the Navajo value?

Order & ritual

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What are the 3 steps of the Navajo creation ceremony?

-the spirit people cleanse themselves-gods place corn & feathers on buckskin-mirage people circle the skins; wind transforms the corn

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The myth "the earth on turtle's back" relates a story about...?

The creation of the world

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In "the earth on turtle's back," where & how does the earth grow?

Earth grows with the help of animals & grows between the water and a place called Skyland

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What do the Onondaga people believe about dreams?

Believe that dreams are powerful, influential messages that must be obeyed

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In the essay "museum indians," Susan Power describes aspects of...?

Describes aspects of the relationship she & her mother had when Power was a child

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In "museum indians," how does Power describe her mother?

Her mother, a Dakota woman, is an inspiring figure — tall, fearless, & outspoken

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In "museum indians," why might have Power's mom cut her hair?

Because she wanted to fit in with everyone else in the city

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In what ways is Susan Power's mother fearless?

-she moved to Chicago at 16-when she saw the Indian statue in the museum, which gave a false interpretation of Indians, she lectured the employees until the statue was removed

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In "museum indians," what does the color blue represent?

Represents sadness; is used in the story to show that everyone has their own "blue period"

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What animal do the Indians value?

The buffalo

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In "museum indians," why does the mother compare herself to the buffalo on display?

She says she is just like the buffalo because the buffalo doesn't belong in the museum, just like she doesn't belong in the city; they both don't fit in with everyone around them

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Who wrote "of plymouth plantation" & why did they write it?

Written by William Bradford; written to inform the new generation about the pilgrim's history

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What did Bradford want to persuade the new generation to do?

Sought to persuade the new generation to uphold Puritan values

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What hardships did the Pilgrims face while out on sea?

-strong winds, which broke a beam of the ship & threw a passenger overboard-no shelter during winter

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When the Pilgrims arrived at Cape Cod, how did they feel?

They were ecstatic & thanked God for getting them to safety

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How did Bradford portray the Native Americans?

Portrayed them as savages. He refers to them as "wild beasts & wild men"

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The Pilgrims attribute their safety & survival to...?

Attribute their safety & survival to the spirit of God & God's grace

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Who helped the Pilgrims with things like fishing & traveling?

Squanto, who was part of the Native Americans

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What did the agreement between the Pilgrims & Indians state?

The agreement stated that they shouldn't cause harm to one another, and that if they did, they had to help each other. They also had to return any stolen items

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What was the result of the harvest in "of plymouth plantation"?

The Indians & Pilgrims made peace with each other and united as one

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What does Equiano's narrative discuss?

Discusses the demoralizing effect of the slave trade

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What does Equiano's narrative warn about?

Warns masters that their brutality may encourage a revolt among the slaves

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What is the purpose of Equiano's narrative?

To educate people about the events slaves went through in hopes that it will end one day

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What is Equiano's goal?

His goal is to abolish slavery

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How is Equiano's message conveyed?

Conveyed through the events, characters, & reactions in the narrative

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In Equiano's narrative, what hardships did the slaves face?

-the smell under the deck, where they were forced to stay-the crowded area under the deck, where diseases were caused-a single bucket was used as the toilet-flogging/whipping

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In Equiano's narrative, what are the 2 reasons why the slaves received floggings?

-they were trying to escape-they were trying to get food

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When the slaves in Equiano's narrative arrived at Barbados, what were they worried about?

They were worried that they would be eaten, but instead, they were forced to work

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"Sinners in the hands of an angry god" is a sermon delivered by who?

Delivered by Jonathan Edwards

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How did the effects of "sinners in the hands of an angry god" affect the audience?

The effects caused an emotional uproar in the congregation (weeping, moaning, etc.)

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What is the message of "sinners in the hands of an angry god"?

Only God can save you from damnation

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What is a rhetorical device?

A use of language that is intended to have an effect on its audience; repetition, figurative language, & even rhetorical questions are examples

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Who wrote "the crucible" & why?

Arthur Miller; wrote it as his response to the McCarthy era

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When did the Salem witch trials take place?

Took place from June through September 1692

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The British colony of Salem, Massachusetts was swept by...?

Witchcraft hysteria

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In the Salem witch trials, how many people were executed and how many were jailed?

20 executed, at least 150 jailed

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Colonists of Salem attributed much of their hardships to...?

The devil

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"The crucible" takes up the universal theme of...?

Social responsibility

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What are the 3 themes in "the crucible"?

-personal liberty-need for integrity-human bond

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What does the word "crucible" mean?

Refers to a hard test/trial

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What were Abigail and her friends doing in the forest?

They were dancing and chanting, and Tituba was running naked through the trees

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What happened between John and Abigail?

They had an affair; he doesn't love her anymore, but Abigail still does, so she wants to get revenge on his wife and kill her

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Why might Betty seem so strange?

She could be traumatized because she saw her cousin dancing & chanting in the forest; she might have a guilty conscience; Mrs. Putnam believes she might have been possessed

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Who is Mrs. Putnam jealous of and why?

Jealous of Rebecca Nurse because she has 11 children, and all of them are still alive

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Who does Abigail blame for calling/summoning the devil in the forest?

She blames Tituba

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After being interrogated by the reverends, what do the girls do?

They start accusing others of witchcraft

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How does Betty expose Abigail in Act I?

When Abigail tells the girls she confessed everything, Betty says that Abigail didn't talk about drinking blood as a charm to kill Elizabeth Proctor

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What does Proctor mean when he says "it's winter in here yet"?

Elizabeth is acting cold towards him because she knows about his affair with Abigail

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When Proctor is forced to recite the Ten Commandments, which one does he forget and why is it ironic?

He forgets the commandment of not committing adultery; ironic because it's the one commandment he went against

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What gift did Mary Warren give to Elizabeth?

She gave her a doll that she sewed while in court

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In Act ii, what happened with the doll Mary Warren gave to Elizabeth?

Cheever asks if Elizabeth has any dolls at home, and she says she hasn't had one since she was little. He notices the doll Mary gave her, and finds a needle inside it. He tells them that Abigail had a fit the other night and Parris found a needle in her abdomen and did this to frame Elizabeth

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At the end of Act ii, what does Proctor tell Mary Warren to do?

He tells her to testify in court that she made the doll, but she says that if she testifies, Abigail will kill her and charge Proctor for lechery

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In Act iii, what news does Proctor hear about Elizabeth?

That she claims to be pregnant and she won't be hanged until the baby is born

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In Act iii, what are the 3 depositions presented in court?

-the deposition signed by 91 farmers attesting to Elizabeth, Martha, & Rebecca-Giles accusing Putnam of telling his daughter to cry witchery on George Jacobs-Mary stating that the witchcraft accusations are false

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What do the judges force Mary Warren to do in Act iii?

They force her to faint, but she can't because she doesn't have "the sense of it"

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In Act iii, what happens in the courtroom with Abigail and Mary Warren?

-Abigail and the girls accuse Mary of bewitching them with a cold wind after she is forced to faint but can't-they scream that Mary is sending her spirit at them. When Mary tells them to stop, they begin repeating everything she says-Proctor tries to comfort Mary, but she moves away from him and accuses him of dealing with the devil

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In the courtroom in Act iii, the girls pretend that Mary's spirit is represented by...?

A yellow bird

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How was Giles Corey killed?

Stones were pressed on his chest until he confessed, but instead of confessing, he said "more weight" and was crushed by the weight

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Why does Proctor want to confess?

So that when he is hanged, the court will realize his innocence. He also wants to protect Elizabeth so that she won't be hanged

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Why does Proctor tear his confession in Act iv?

He refuses to have it nailed to the church door in front of the whole town because he doesn't want to be a bad example, especially for his children

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What does Hale mean when he says "there is blood on my head! Can you not see the blood on my head?"

He feels responsible for the deaths of the innocent people who have been hanged

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What is romanticism?

-a literary & artistic movement that grew out of a reaction against the dominant attitudes of the 18th century-stressed the examination of inner feelings & emotions and the use of the imagination, rather than the use of reason & logic-observes nature & its mysteries and even the supernatural

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What does gothic romance/tradition include?

Dark & dreary settings, dark villains, saintly heroines, flickering lights, strange noises, & reliance on the supernatural

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What is a folktale?

A story that often relate events that are unrealistic or unlikely to happen in the real world in order to teach a lesson or express a general truth about life; the characters tend to be stereotypes embodying a single human trait, quality, or emotion

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What is allegory?

When the characters, objects, & plot represent an idea

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What is alliteration?

-the repetition of initial consonant sounds, as in "weak & weary"-can also apply to the repetition of sounds within words, as in "silken sad uncertain rustling"

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What is assonance?

The repetition of the sound in a word; Poe emphasizes the "o" sound in words in order to portray the melancholy & lonely sound of the poem to establish the overall atmosphere

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What is onomatopoeia?

The use of words whose sounds suggest the natural sound of an object/activity, such as rapping, tapping, & beating

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How is repetition significant in poetry?

The repetition of "nevermore" in "the raven" gives a circular sense to the poem & contributes to what Poe termed the unity of effect, where each word & line adds to the larger meaning of the poem

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In "the devil and tom walker," what do tom & his wife represent?

Represent greed because tom always chose money & himself over his wife

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In "the devil and tom walker," what does the swamp represent?

Represents choosing the wrong path/making the wrong decision

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In "the devil and tom walker," what does the indian fort represent?

Represents temptation when he tempts tom to take the money

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In "the devil and tom walker," what do the carved names represent?

Represent sinners; greedy people who made deals with the devil

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In "the devil and tom walker," what does the vulture represent?

Represents death

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In "the devil and tom walker," what does tom in old age represent?

Represents hypocrisy; tom becomes a hypocrite when he gets older; what he preaches isn't what he practices

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In "the devil and tom walker," what does Tom's bible represent?

Represents forgiveness/salvation; a protection against the devil

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What point of view is "the raven" written in?

Written from a first person point of view, where the narrator is lamenting the loss of his love, Lenore

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