ultimate chem review

studied byStudied by 24 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

molecules in nucleus

1 / 192

Tags and Description

updated regularly

193 Terms

1

molecules in nucleus

protons and neutrons

New cards
2

mass number

number of neutrons in nucleus

New cards
3

atomic number

number of protons in nucleus

New cards
4

isotopes

same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons

New cards
5

average atomic mass

based on the percentage of isotopes found in nature

New cards
6

valence electrons

electrons in the outermost shell (can be easily shared, gained or lost)

New cards
7

core electrons

electrons in the inner shell

New cards
8

atomic spectra

the electromagnetic emission from atoms and molecules

New cards
9

spectroscopy

a technique measuring electromagnetic emissions that is widely used in chemical analysis and in studies of the properties of atoms, molecules, ions, etc.

New cards
10

wave mechanical model

modern model of the atom, atoms have electrons in "orbitals" that are like clouds around the nucleus

New cards
11

quantum numbers

specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals

New cards
12

pauli expulsion principle

an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction

New cards
13

hund’s rule

electrons do not pair up until they have to

New cards
14

aufbau principle

An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it

New cards
15

noble gas notation

shortcut→ find the closest noble gas (column 18) with fewer electrons than the element then finish configuration

New cards
16

transition elements

group 3-12

New cards
17

transition element properties

elements that have high melting points, often paramagnetic, tend to form salts when reacted w/ halogens ex; iron, copper, gold, silver, and titanium

New cards
18

electronegativity

a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons

New cards
19

ionization energy

the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom

New cards
20

alpha decay

a nuclear reaction in which an atom emits a ________ particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons; this increases the atomic number by 2 and the mass number by 4.

New cards
21

beta decay

a nuclear reaction in which a neutron changes into a proton and into an electron, and the atoms emits a ______ particle, which is the electron; this increases the atomic number of the atom without changing the mass.

New cards
22

gamma radiation

electromagnetic radiation emitted during radioactive decay and having an extremely short wavelength

New cards
23

covalent bond

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

New cards
24

dipole-dipole attraction

attractive force resulting when polar molecules line up so that the positive and negative ends are close to each other

New cards
25

electrostatic repulsion

describes a force between particles with opposite electrical charges that causes them to push apart from one another

New cards
26

hybridization

several atomic orbitals mix to form the same total number of equivalent hybrid orbitals

New cards
27

hydrogen bond

a relatively weak bond formed between any hydrogen atom (which is covalently bound to a nitrogen or oxygen atom) and a nitrogen or oxygen with an unshared electron pair

New cards
28

ionic bond

formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another; metal and nonmetal

New cards
29

london dispersion forces

the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles

New cards
30

metallic bond

a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them

New cards
31

pi bond

when two p orbitals line up in parallel and electron clouds overlap. it exsits over a single bond.

New cards
32

resonance structure

a structure that occurs when it is possible to draw two or more valid electron dot structures that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion

New cards
33

stable octet

the arrangement of eight electrons in the outermost shell of an atom

New cards
34

sigma bond

a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei

New cards
35

van der waals forces

a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules

New cards
36

VSERP

valance electron pair repulsion model / unshared electron pairs around the central atom

New cards
37

binary compound

ionic compounds when they are composed of only two different kinds of atoms

New cards
38

coefficient

a number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant and product are involved in a reaction.

New cards
39

emperical formula

simplest whole # ration of atoms in a compound

New cards
40

formula mass

the sum of the average atomic masses of all the atoms represented in the formula of any molecule, formula unit, or ion

New cards
41

molecular mass

the sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule

New cards
42

law of definite composition

chemical compounds are composed of a fixed ratio of elements as determined by mass.

New cards
43

law of multiple proportions

whenever two elements form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ratio of small whole numbers

New cards
44

net ionic equation

includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution

New cards
45

percentage composition

the percentage by mass of each element in a compound

New cards
46

polyatomic ion

a covalently bonded group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge and acts as a unit

New cards
47

products

the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction.

New cards
48

reactants

a substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction

New cards
49

stock system

a method for naming ions of elements that can form more than one possible positive charge by using a roman numeral after the ion name to denote the ion's charge

New cards
50

ternary compound

a compound that consists of three or more elements, usually containing

New cards
51

true formula

chemical formula that indicates the actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a substance

New cards
52

atmosphere

Layers of different gases that surround the Earth.

New cards
53

atmospheric pressure

the pressure exerted by atoms and molecules in the atmosphere surrounding Earth, resulting from collisions of these particles with objects

New cards
54

greenhouse effect

natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases

New cards
55

manometer

a device used to measure the pressure of a sample of gas in a container.

New cards
56

boyle’s law

PV = k

New cards
57

charles’s law

V/T = k

New cards
58

combined gas law

P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2 (constant n)

New cards
59

ideal gas law

PV = n R T

New cards
60

dalton's law of partial pressures

total pressure of a gas is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of the component gases

New cards
61

graham's law

rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular weight

New cards
62

kinetic-molecular theory

a theory that explains that the behavior of physical systems depends on the combined actions of the molecules constituting the system

New cards
63

mercury barometer

an instrument that measures changes in air pressure, consisting of a glass tube partially filled with mercury, with its open end resting in a dish of mercury

New cards
64

ozone

a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of the usual two

New cards
65

pascal

the SI unit of pressure equal to one newton per square meter

New cards
66

standard pressure

1 atm or 101.3 kPa

New cards
67

standard temperature

One atmosphere and 273 K.

New cards
68

torr

the force per unit area exerted by the gas on its container, usually measured in atmospheres

New cards
69

acidic anhydride

a nonmetallic oxide that, when placed in water, reacts to form an acid solution

New cards
70

aeration

air is forced through the water to release unwanted gases, which reduces odor and improves taste

New cards
71

alloy

a mixture of two or more metals

New cards
72

boiling point

the temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas

New cards
73

brownian movement

kinetic energy spreads small suspended particles throughout the cytoplasm of the cell

New cards
74

colligative property

a property of a solution that depends on the number, not the identity, of the solute particles

New cards
75

concentrated

describes a solution that has a relatively large amount of dissolved solute

New cards
76

critical pressure

the lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid at the critical temperature

New cards
77

critical temperature

the temperature above which the substance cannot exist in the liquid state

New cards
78

crystal

an orderly, three-dimensional pattern of ions or atoms in a solid

New cards
79

deliquescent

compounds that remove sufficient water from the air to dissolve completely and form solutions

New cards
80

dilute

to lessen the concentration, force, or purity of by adding something

New cards
81

dynamic equilibrium

result of diffusion where there is continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration

New cards
82

endothermic

a chemical reaction that absorbs energy (heat)

New cards
83

efflorescent

hydrated crystals that lose the water of hydration on exposure to air at ordinary temperatures

New cards
84

exothermic

a chemical reaction that releases energy (heat)

New cards
85

heat of fusion

amount of energy required to change a substance from the solid phase to the liquid phase

New cards
86

heat of vaporization

the amount of energy required for the liquid at its boiling point to become a gas

New cards
87

"heavy" water

water containing an elevated concentration of molecules with deuterium

New cards
88

deuterium

an isotope of hydrogen with one proton and one neutron in the nucleus having an atomic weight of 2.014

New cards
89

hydrate

a compound that has a specific number of water molecules bound to its atoms

New cards
90

le chatelier's principle

states that if a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that relieves the stress

New cards
91

melting point

the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid

New cards
92

miscible

describes two liquids that are soluble in each other

New cards
93

immiscible

liquid solutes and solvents that are not soluble in each other

New cards
94

molality

the concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent

New cards
95

molarity

a common measure of solute concentration, referring to the number of moles of solute per liter of solution

New cards
96

mole fraction

the ratio of the moles of solute in solution to the total number of moles of both solvent and solute

New cards
97

normality

gram equivalent weight of solute per liter of solution, often denoted by N

New cards
98

phase equilibrium

when the rates of evaporation and condensation equalize

New cards
99

polarity

a lack of electrical symmetry in a molecule; charge differences on opposite ends of a structure

New cards
100

saturated

unable to dissolve any more solute

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 130 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(7)
note Note
studied byStudied by 82 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17173 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(11)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard26 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard53 terms
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 26 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard195 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard61 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard104 terms
studied byStudied by 60 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard242 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)