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Chloroplast

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Chloroplast

Site of photosynthesis in plants

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Chloroplast

An organelle located in the leaf mesophyll

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Transpiration

Process in plants that release water vapor through the openings in leaves

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Transpiration

Process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts

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Guard cells

What cells are responsible for opening and closing the stomata?

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Guard cells

use osmotic pressure to open and close stomata

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chlorophyll

A light absorbing green pigment that plays an important role in photosynthesis

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Xylem

what tissue in plants carry water and minerals

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Xylem

A specialized tissue of vascular plants

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phloem

A vascular tissue in charge of transport and distribution of the organic nutrients

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Xylem

Makes the transport of water and minerals possible

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Xylem

occupies the central part of the plants, which is the largest

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Vessels

In a mature flowering plant or tree, most of the cells that make up the xylem are specialized cells called

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Vessels

Lose their end walls so the xylem forms a continuous, hollow tube. this allows water to flow easily

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Vessels

become strengthened by a chemical called lignin.

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Lignin

Gives strength and support to the vessel.

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Xylem

Transport in the ___ is a physical process. It does not require energy

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Phloem

Responsible for transporting the products of photosynthesis throughout the plant body.

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Phloem

From the leaves of the plant they will deliver the product substance to the rest of body

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phloem

occupies the marginal side of the plants

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Translocation

Transport of substances in phloem is called

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phloem

consists of living cells

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Sieve tubes, companion cells

cells that make up the phloem

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sieve tubes

specialized for transport and have no nuclei.

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sieve tubes

Has a perforated end so its cytoplasm connects one cell to the next

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Companion cells

Transport of subtances in the phloem cells requires energy

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companion cells

One or more ___ attached to each sieve tube provide this energy.

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companion cells

A sieve tubes is completely dependent on it

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Plant organization

The xylem and phloem are distributed differently in roots and stems, in the roots the xylem forms a central column, forming a solid support.

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Stem

In the ____, the transport tissues of the xylem and phloem are grouped into vascular bundles

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radial rays

In the trees, we can find ____ along their trunks

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Radial rays

These tissues are common in woody plants for radial distribution of food

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Environmental conditions

During the growth season affect xylem growth

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Vascular cambium

produces xylem cells that can carry a lot of water cells that are large and thin walled when temperatures are cool and water is plentiful, as in the typical spring

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Vascular cambium

produces narrow, thick-walled cells under hot, dry conditions, as in the typical summer

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Radial system

functions primarily in the transport of carbohydrates from the inner bark to the wood

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radial system

there are some food storage cells in this system as well

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Ray cell

Interrupt the interconnections of the tracheids or fibres

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Apoplast pathway

Movement through the cell walls and spaces between cells

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Symplast pathway

Water and minerals pass through a continuum of cytoplasm between cells, called plasmodesma

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Transmembrane Pathway

involves transport between cells across the membranes of vacuoles within cells

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Stomatal transpiration

It is the evaporation of water through stomata. Stomata are specialized pores in the leaves

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Cuticular Transpiration

The evaporation of water happens through the lenticels

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Lenticular Transpiration

This type of transpiration is the loss of water from plants as vapor through the lenticels

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Relative Humidity, Air Movement, Temperature, Light, Surface Area of Leaf, Water Availability, Opening and Closing of Stomata, Ascent of Sap

Factors Affecting Transpiration in Plants

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Water potential

The one of the main factors that regulate the transport process in plants. This represents free energy or the potential to do work

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Water potential

Furthermore, this is used to predict where water will move. Take note that water will move from a cell or solution with higher water potential to a cell or solution with lower water potential.

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Guttation

This happens if sunlight is absent. During nighttime the rate of transpiration is low, that’s why ions accumulate in the roots of plants, causing root pressure buildup. This will cause the water to enter the cells by osmosis.

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Turgor pressure

The influx of water into the cell can produce this kind of pressure. This causes the plasma membrane to push against the cell wall, during the transport in phloem.

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Pressure flow theory

This can demonstrate turgor pressure; it states that dissolved carbohydrates which flow from a source, are brought to a sink where these either stored or utilized

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Sucrose

travels from mesophyll cells of the leaves to the companion and sieve cells through symplast

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Protists

Exchange gases directly with the water in their surroundings through the cell membrane.

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Sponges and Cnidarians

Also aquatic animals that exchange gases directly with body cells and the environment.

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Fishes

Have a heart that is two chambered. Gas exchange is made more efficient through the countercurrent flow

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Frogs

The heart is three chambered with two atria and one ventricle. In the ventricle, partial mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood happens. From the ventricle, blood is pumped to reach the lungs and skin where gas exchange will take place.

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cutaneous breathing

Under water, they utilize their skin for gas exchange, which is also referred to as

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External respiration, Internal respiration

There are two types of gas exchange in the human body.

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External respiration

the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the lungs

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Internal respiration

is gas exchange between the cells and the blood.

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Nose

Two openings in the ___ serve as the entrance for the passage of air into the body. In the nose, air is cleaned, moistened, and warmed

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Pharynx

This is also known as the throat, is found at the back of the mouth. During inhalation, a flap of cartilage called epiglottis is in an upright position and air moves into the trachea or windpipe.

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Larynx

This is also called voice box or Adam’s apple, is more prominent in males than in females. Sounds are produced when air is forced past two vocal cords that stretch across the.

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Trachea

: This is most often called the windpipe , it is located in front of the esophagus. It is about 10 cm long and 2.5 cm wide and is lined with mucous membranes and cilia.

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Bronchi

The trachea is divided into two hollow branches, called . Each bronchus is attached to the lungs.

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Lungs

These are large, spongy , and elastic sac like structures suspended from each side of the heart, inside the chest cavity.

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air sacs

In the ______, oxygen diffuses through the capillaries and into the bloodstream.

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nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide

The air that we inhale is a mixture of gases which includes

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Circulatory system

The system that contains the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

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Circulatory system

This system moves the blood throughout the body.

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Circulatory system

This system helps tissues and cells get enough oxygen and nutrients, and it also helps them get rid of waste materials.

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Problems with your heart’s pumping action. Changes to your heart’s structure. Inefficient blood flow.

CIRCULATORY DISEASES CAN CAUSE THE FOLLOWING

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Cardiovascular diseases, Vascular diseases

CATEGORIES OF DISEASES THAT AFFECT THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

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Cardiovascular diseases

which affect your heart and/or blood vessels.

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Vascular diseases

which affect your blood vessels.

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ANEURYSMS

Are weak spots in the walls of your arteries that can expand like a balloon.

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ANEURYSMS

As they continue to get bigger, they’re at risk for rupture (breaking open) or causing blood clots. Can occur in any artery (aortic aneurysms)

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Fusiform, pseudoaneurysms, saccular, dissecting, ruptured

Types of aneurysms

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ARRHYTHMIAS

Is an irregular or abnormal heartbeat. Prevent your heart from contracting and relaxing normally.

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ARRHYTHMIAS

Atrial fibrillation is the most common type

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supraventricular arrhythmias

Some begin in the upper chambers of the heart. These are called

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ventricular arrhythmias

Others begin in the lower chambers of your heart These are called

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Ventricular fibrillation

is a life threatening medical emergency because it can lead to sudden death.

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ATHEROSCLEROSIS

Is the buildup of plaque in your arteries.

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plaque

Over time, the _____ narrows your arteries and makes it harder for blood to flow through.

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