Psychology: History, Research, and Memory

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Vicarious Punishment

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108 Terms

1

Vicarious Punishment

Observing a model being punished, decreasing the likelihood of imitating their behavior

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2

Modern Psychiatry

Scientific approach to diagnosing and treating psychological disorders

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3

Wilhelm Wundt

Founder of modern psychology, established the first psychology laboratory

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4

Introspection

Process of examining one's own conscious experience to break it into its component parts

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5

Psychoanalytic Theory

Theory that focuses on the role of the subconscious mind and early childhood experiences in shaping behavior

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6

Biological Psychology

Study of how the nervous system generates behavior

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7

Social Psychology

Study of how individuals interact and relate with others

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8

Clinical Psychology

Focuses on diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders

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9

Industrial-Organizational Psychology

Application of psychological theories to work settings

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10

Sports and Exercise Psychology

Focus on psychological aspects of sports and physical performance

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11

Forensic Psychology

Branch of psychology dealing with the justice system

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12

Mary Whiton Calkins

Psychologist who faced discrimination in receiving her PhD

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13

Research

Process of validating empirical claims

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14

Confirmation Bias

Tendency to seek out information that confirms our beliefs

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15

Overgeneralization

Tendency to overgeneralize based on limited cases

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16

Hindsight Bias

Tendency to falsely believe we predicted an outcome

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17

Confounding Variable

Unanticipated factor that affects both variables of interest

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18

Neuron

Electrically charged cell that transmits information

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19

Superstitious Behavior

Behavior developed in response to random reinforcement

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20

Model

Individual performing the behavior being imitated

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21

Engram

Group of neurons that represent a memory

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22

Psychology

Scientific study of the mind and behavior

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23

Soul or Mind

The seat of consciousness and identity

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24

Subconscious Mind

Unconscious mental processes that influence behavior

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25

Nature vs Nurture

Debate about the relative importance of genetics and environment in shaping behavior

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26

Structuralism

Psychological approach that aimed to identify the components of the mind through experiments and introspection

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27

William James

First American psychologist, founder of functionalism

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28

Functionalism

Psychological approach that emphasized how mental activities help us adapt to our environment

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29

Sigmund Freud

Psychologist known for psychoanalytic theory and emphasis on the subconscious mind

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30

Dream Analysis

Technique used by Freud to assess the subconscious mind

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31

Ivan Pavlov

Russian physiologist known for developing the concept of classical conditioning

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32

Classical Conditioning

Learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus

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33

Cognitive Psychology

Study of thoughts and their relationship to experiences and actions

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34

Carl Rogers

Psychologist known for client-centered therapy and emphasis on empathy and genuineness

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35

Feminist Psychology

Branch of psychology that focuses on reducing barriers and biases based on gender

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36

Developmental Psychology

Study of physical and mental attributes of aging and maturation

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37

Scientific Method

Process of proposing hypotheses, conducting research, and modifying theories based on results

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38

Theory

Well-developed set of ideas that explains observed phenomena

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39

Hypothesis

Tentative and testable statement about the relation between variables

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40

Freud's Theories

Psychological theories that have fallen out of favor due to lack of falsifiability

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41

Clinical Studies

In-depth examination of an individual in unique psychological circumstances

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42

Naturalistic Observation

Observation of behavior in its natural setting

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43

Archival Research

Use of past records or data sets to answer research questions

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44

Surveys

List of questions used to gather data from a sample of a population

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45

Cross-sectional Research

Comparison of multiple segments of a population at a single time

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Longitudinal Research

Study in which the same group of individuals is surveyed repeatedly over time

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Correlation

Relationship between two or more variables

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48

Cause-and-Effect Relationship

Changes in one variable cause changes in another variable

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49

Independent Variable

Variable controlled by the experimenter

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50

Dependent Variable

Variable measured to see the effect of the independent variable

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51

Experimental Condition

Participants experience the manipulated variable

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52

Control Condition

Participants do not experience the manipulated variable

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53

Placebo Effect

Expectations or beliefs influencing a person's experience

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54

Random Assignment

Method of assigning participants to groups

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55

Participants

Subjects of psychological research

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Population

Overall group of individuals that the researcher is interested in

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Random Sample

Subset of a population in which every member has an equal chance of being selected

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58

Statistical Analysis

Determines the likelihood of differences between groups

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59

Scientific Journals

Publications that report research findings

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60

Peer-Reviewed Journal Article

Article reviewed by experts in the field before publication

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61

Replication

Repeating a study to verify results

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62

Institutional Review Board

Committee that reviews research proposals involving human participants

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Informed Consent

Process of informing research participants and obtaining their consent

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Deception

Purposefully misleading participants to maintain the integrity of the experiment

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Debriefing

Providing participants with complete information about the experiment after it is concluded

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Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee

Committee that reviews research proposals involving non-human animals

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67

Genotype

Genetic material inherited from parents

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68

Phenotype

Observable traits influenced by genetic variations

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69

Evolutionary Psychology

Focuses on how traits have helped organisms survive and reproduce

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70

Natural Selection

Process by which organisms better suited for their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce

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71

Range of Reaction

Genes set boundaries, environment determines where we fall within the range

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72

Gene/Environment Correlation

Genes influence how we interact with the environment, and the environment affects gene expression

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73

Epigenetics

Biological factors beyond genes that affect gene expression

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74

Resting Potential

Negative charge of a neuron at rest

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75

Action Potential

Brief shift in electrical charge that travels down the axon

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Synapse

Space between neurons where neurotransmitters cross

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77

Neurotransmitters

Chemicals that affect neurons

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78

Reuptake

Process of moving neurotransmitters back into the axon terminal

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79

Observational Learning

Learning by watching others and imitating their behavior

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80

Vicarious Reinforcement

Observing a model being rewarded, increasing the likelihood of imitating their behavior

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81

Memory

Mental process of encoding, storing, and retrieving information

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82

Encoding

Process of inputting information into the memory system

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Storage

Retention of encoded information in the memory system

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84

Retrieval

Process of getting information out of memory and back into awareness

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85

Sensory Memory

Storage of brief sensory events

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86

Short-Term Memory

Temporary storage system that processes incoming sensory memory

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87

Long-Term Memory

Continuous storage of information beyond initial processing

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88

Explicit Memory

Conscious memory of facts and events

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Episodic Memory

Memory for autobiographical events

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90

Semantic Memory

Memory for general knowledge and facts

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Implicit Memory

Unconscious memory for skills and behaviors

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Procedural Memory

Memory for how to do things

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93

Recall

Retrieving information without cues

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94

Recognition

Identifying information that has been previously learned

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95

Relearning

Learning information that has been previously learned

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96

Attention

Process of focusing on information to be encoded

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97

Elaborate Rehearsal

Thinking about the meaning of new information to encode it better

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98

Chunking

Organizing information into manageable chunks

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99

Mnemonic Devices

Memory aids that help organize information

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100

Amnesia

Loss of long-term memory

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