M2 - Basic Computer Principles

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96 Terms

1

Computer

Programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve & process data.

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Input Devices

Any hardware device that sends data to a computer, allowing you to interact with and control it.

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Examples of Input Devices

  1. Keyboard

  2. Mouse

  3. Microphones

  4. Barcode readers

  5. Touch screens

  6. Image scanners

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Output Devices

-Any piece of computer hardware equipment which converts information into a human-perceptible form -Can be text, graphics, tactile, audio, or video

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Examples of Output Devices

  1. Monitors

  2. Printers

  3. Speakers

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Binary Code

The computer takes data from the user and processes it using a machine language of 1s and 0s, known as

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Binary code 1

✓ Transistor circuit is closed ✓ Current passes through

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Binary code 0

✓ Transistor circuit is open ✓ No current passes

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bit

Each 1 and each 0 represents a

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bit

• single unit of data

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Byte

• made up of eight bits

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Byte

• amount of memory needed to store one alphanumeric character

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Case

To hold all the components in a relatively cool, clean, and safe environment.

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Case

To shield the outside environment from the radio frequencies being emitted by the electronic components of the computer.

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Largest circuitry board inside the computer

Largest circuitry board inside the computer

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Components of MOBO

  1. CPU

  2. Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)

  3. Bus

  4. Memory

  5. Ports

  6. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors (CMOS)

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CPU

• Brain of the computer

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CPU

• Consists of a series of transistors that are arranged to manipulate data received from the software.

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Central Processing Unit (Microprocessor)

CPU meaning

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Basic task of a CPU:

  1. To read data from storage

  2. Manipulate the data

  3. Then move the data back to storage or send it to external devices, such as monitors & printers

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1979

First microprocessor was made by Intel in

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8088

First microprocessor was called the

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8088

Needs 12 cycle to complete 1 basic instruction

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Pentium 4

1 instruction per cycle

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i5

3GHz, 3 thousand million instructions per second

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BIOS

Contains a simple set of instructions for the computer

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BIOS

The microprocessor uses the ___ during the boot-up process of the computer to help bring the computer to life

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BIOS

Oversees the basic functions of receiving & interpreting signals from the keyboard and interchanging information with various ports

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BIOS

Intermediary between the operating system & the hardware.

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Bus

• Series of connections, controllers, and chips that creates the information highway of the computer

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Bus

• Provides the connections for the information to flow within the computer

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Bus found in computer

PCI – Peripheral Component Interconnect SCSI – Small Computer System Interface AGP – Accelerated Graphics Port USB – Universal Serial Bus

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Peripheral Component Interconnect

PCI

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SCSI

Small Computer System Interface

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AGP

Accelerated Graphics Port

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USB

Universal Serial Bus

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Memory

• Used to store information currently being processed within the CPU • Also known as RAM

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RAM

is short-term storage for open programs

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RAM

is only temporary, once the PC is turned off, the ___ is wiped clean

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Ports

• Collection of connectors sticking out of the back of the PC that link:

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Examples of Por

✓ Adapter cards ✓ Drives ✓ Printers ✓ Scanners ✓ Keyboards ✓ Mouse ✓ Other peripherals that may be used

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Types of Ports

  1. Parallel

  2. Serial

  3. USB

  4. IDE – Integrated Drive Electrons

  5. SCSI – Small Computer System Interface

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Integrated Drive Electrons

IDE

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Small Computer System Interface

SCSI

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Parallel Port

25 pin connector 8 bits of data

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Serial Port

9-25 pin connector 1 bit of data

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USB Port

Most common wired connection Multiple devices may be connected into 1 port

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IDE (Integrated Drive Electrons)

Found in the motherboard Connects the hard drive, floppy drive, CD-ROM drive to the board

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SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)

Fastest & most versatile way for a PC to communicate with its peripherals

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SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)

Can manage up to 7 devices through a daisy chain connection

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SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)

  1. Hard drives

  2. CD-ROM drives

  3. Scanners

  4. Printers

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CMOS

• Special type of memory chip

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CMOS

• Special type of memory chip

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CMOS

• Also the location of the system clock that keeps track of the date & time

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Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors

CMOS

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quartz crystal

System clock uses a vibrating ____ ____ to set the speed for the CPU.

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Sound Card

• Contains all the circuitry for recording & reproducing sound on the PC.

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WAV, MP3, MIDI

Sound card interprets many file types such as:

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Waveform Audio Files

WAV

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Moving Picture Experts Group Audio Layer 3 Files

MP3

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Musical Instrument Digital Interface

MIDI

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NIC

• Has a RJ-45 adapter jack at the rear of the PC for a twisted-pair wire with RJ-45 connector

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NIC

• Comes as an expansion card plugged into a slot or as part of the PC motherboard circuitry

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NIC

• Enables the PC to connect to other PCs that are on the same network

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Network Interface Card

NIC

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Power Supply

• Designed to take the brunt of the force if the computer ever receives a power surge • Delivers all electricity to the PC & contains a fan to help keep the inside cool • Contains transformer that converts AC to DC in the voltages appropriate for each powered device

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Hard Drive

• Made up of many hard, thin magnetic platters that are stacked one on top of the other with only enough space for a read-write head to glide over the surface of the disks • The disks are spun at a fast speed by a small motor, & The read/write head glides to the area that houses the information needed & reads/writes as asked • Main repository for programs & documents on a PC

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CD

Compact Disk

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CD

• Thin injection-molded polycarbonate plastic disk • Has microscopic bumps that indicate either a 1 or 0 to the computer • Can hold up to 74 minutes of music or approx. 780 MB of data

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DVD

Digital Versatile Disk

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DVD

• Holds up to 7 times more than the CD • Single-sided 9.4 GB • Double-sided 17 GB

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3 main types of CD/DVD

  1. CD-ROM (Read Only Memory)

  2. CD-R (Write Once-read Many)

  3. CD-RW (Read And Write Many Times)

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CD-RW

Read And Write Many Times • erasable disc that can be reused • The data on a CD-RW disc can be erased and recorded over numerous times.

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CD-R

Read Only Memory • Write Once Read Multiple (WORM) disc. • can only record data once and then the data becomes permanent on the disc.

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CD-ROM

Read Only Memory • created commercially and cannot save data once they have been created

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Peripherals

Peripherals

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Monitors

  1. CRT – Cathode Ray Tube

  2. LCD – Liquid Crystal Display

  3. OLED – Organic Light-emitting diode

  4. AMOLED - Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diodes

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Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diodes

AMOLED

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Organic Light-emitting diode

OLED

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Liquid Crystal Display

LCD

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Cathode Ray Tube

CRT

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Pixel

• Basic picture element on a display

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Resolution

• Number of pixels on a display • Process or capability to distinguish adjacent parts

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higher

The more pixels in an image, the ____ the resolution.

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Matrix

Rectangular or square table of numbers that represents the pixel intensity to be displayed on the monitor Matrix • Measurement of how clos

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Dot pitch

• Measurement of how close the dots are located to one another within a pixel

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finer

The smaller the dot pitch of a display, the finer the resolution.

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Advantage of CRT

  1. Less expensive

  2. Better color representation

  3. More responsive

  4. Can provide multiple resolutions

  5. More rugged and can sustain rough handling

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Disadvantage of LCD

  1. Less space

  2. Consumes less power

  3. Produces less heat

  4. Surface produces little or no glare

  5. Requires a smaller frame around display

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Disadvantage of CRT

  1. Bulky

  2. Larger viewing are, the deeper & heavier the unit

  3. Not easily adjusted for viewing at different heights & angles

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Operating System

OS

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OS

• Software that controls the computer hardware & acts as a bridge between applications & the hardware • Computers must have an __ for it to be able to fully function as it was intended

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4 Types of OS

Real-time OS Single-user, Single-task Single-user, Multitask Multiuser

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Single-user/Multitask

• Designed for one user to perform multiple functions at the same time, such as the OS on a PC.

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Multiuser

• Designed to handle multiple users and multiple tasks at the same time, such as UNIX running on a large server or as a mainframe computer supporting an entire company.

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Computers in the Radiology Department

Front desk - File room - RT Workstation - (Console) - Radiologist -Reading Room

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