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the generation of ( ), ( ), and ( ), occurs in the 3rd week after fertilization

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ft. areno heath <3

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1

the generation of ( ), ( ), and ( ), occurs in the 3rd week after fertilization

trilaminar disk, notochord, neural plate

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2

at around 18 days, the ( ) is stuffed with cells to form a mature notochord.

notochordial process

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3

what are the 3 roles of the notochord?

determine the central axis induce neurogenesis induce floor plate

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4

when is the neural crest formed?

end of the 3rd week.

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5

how is the neural crest formed?

the rostal and caudal neuropores close

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6

notochord differentiates the ectoderm into...

neural tube

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7

the notochord differentiates the somite into...

skeletal muscles and bones

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8

the somite is filled with...

paraxial mesoderm

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9

in the neural tube, neural cells on the ( ) side divide.

luminal

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10

nervous cells outside the neural tube are derived from the...

neural crest

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11

nervous cells in the neural tube develop into...

CNS

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12

neural crest develops into...

schwann cells melanocytes adrenal medulla

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13

the dorsal part of the neural tube is called the ( ) plate.

roof

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14

the ventral part of the neural tube is called the ( ) plate

floor

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15

the central canal is covered with....

ependymal monolayer cells

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16

the 3 layers of the neural tube from inner to outer:

ventricular, intermediate, marginal

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17

the 4 plates of the neural tube, from dorsal to ventral

roof, alar, basal, floor

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18

the basal plate matures into the ( ) horn. the floor plate matures into the ( ) horn.

ventral, dorsal

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19

an ectopic Shh expression leads to the expression of

an extra floor plate

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20

BMPs are secreted from ( ) side of neural tube

dorsal

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21

Shh are secreted from ( ) side of neural tube

ventral

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22

the roof plate secretes...

BMP and Wnt

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23

( ) is the ansence of brain due to the incomplete closure of ( ) neuropore

meroencephaly, rostal

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24

meningomyelocele is due to the incomplete closure of ( ) neuropore

caudal

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25

the proencephalon first differentiates into...

telencephalon and diencephalon

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26

the mesencephalon becomes ...

midbrain

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27

the rhombencephalon differentiates into...

metencephalon and myelenephalon

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28

the telencephalon becomes...

cerebrum

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29

the diencephalon becomes...

thalamus, hypothalamus, (epithalamus)

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30

the metencephalon becomes..

pons and cerebellum

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31

the myelencephalon becomes...

the medulla oblongata

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32

what are the 3 flexures formed in the neural tube?

cephalic, cervical, pontine

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33

at 6-8 weeks, the ( ) is formed int eh metencephalon, which later becomes the cerebellum

rhombic lip

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34

during neuronal migration, the inside is ( ) and outside is ( )

early, late

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35

the neurons divide in the ( ) layer of the neural tube, then migrate to the ( ) layer

ventricular, plial

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36

the 3 steps of propagation of neurons

extension of leading movement of nucleus retraction of rear process

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37

what is reelin?

glycoprotein secreted from the extrecellular matrix that regulates neuronal migration

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38

what is the cause of lissencephaly?

due to a defect in cell migration, which leads to inverted layer formation

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39

up the the 3rd week, rathke's pouch grows dorsally to the ( )

infundibulum

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40

what happens to rathke's pouch after 2 months?

it loses connection with the oral cavity but stays close with the infundum

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41

the optic vesicles and optic cup induces ( ) from the surface ectoderm

lens placode

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42

at 3 weeks the optic ( ) has formed

groove

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43

the optic groove comes in contact with the ( ) to induce differentiation

surface ectoderm

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44

the optic cup is formed when the ( ) invaginates

optic vesicle

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45

the inner layer of the optic cup forms the ( )

retina

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46

the outer layer of the optic cup forms...

choroid and retinal pigment epithelium

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47

function of PAX-6

regulation of eye development

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48

the optic placode comes from the surface ectoderm of the ( )

hindbrain

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49

the optic placode invaginates to form...

optic pit, optic vesicle

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50

the inner ear is derived from

optic pit and optic vesicle

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51

the middle ear is derived from...

endodermal 1st pharyngeal pouch

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52

the mallues and incus derives from the ( ), but the stapes derives from ( ).

1st pharyngeal arch, 2nd pharyngeal arch

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53

the 1st pharyngeal pouch develops into the auditory tube, then it becomes...

tympanic cavity

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54

the 1st pharyngeal groove develops into the external ( ), when them becomes the external ear

acoustic meatus

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55

the auricle (visible part of ear) is derived from...

auricular hillock

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56

2 origins of the skull?

mesoderm neural crest (ectoderm)

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57

head regions rostal to the rathke's pouch has no components derived from ( ).

mesoderm

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58

head regions anterior to the pituitary gland are derived form ( )

neural crest

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59

head regions posterior to the pituitary gland are derived from ( )

paraxial mesoderm

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