AP Poetry Packet

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Lyric

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34 Terms
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Lyric

subjective, reflective poetry with regular rhyme scheme and meter that reveals the poet's thoughts and feelings to create a single, unique impression

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Narrative

nondramatic, objective verse with regular rhyme scheme and meter that relates a story or narrative

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Sonnet

a rigid 14-line verse form, with variable structure and rhyme scheme according to type

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Shakespearean (English) Sonnet

three quatrains and concluding couplet in iambic pentameter, rhyming abab cdcd efef gg or abba cddc effe gg - the spenserian sonnet is a specialized form with linking rhyme abab bcbc cdcd ee

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Italian (Petrarchan) Sonnet

an octave and sestet, between which a break in thought occurs - the traditional rhyme scheme is abba abba cde cde (or, in the sestet, any variation of c, d, e)

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Ode

elaborate lyric verse that deals seriously with a dignified theme

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Blank Verse

unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter

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Free Verse

unrhymed lines without regular rhythm

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Epic

a long, dignified narrative poem that gives the account of a hero important to his nation or race

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Dramatic Monologue

a lyric poem in which the speaker tells an audience about a dramatic moment in his/her life an, in doing so, reveals his/her character

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Elegy

a poem of lament, meditating on the death of an individual

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Ballad

simple, narrative verse that tells a story to be sung or recited; the folk ballad is anonymously handed down, while the literary ballad has a single author

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Assonance

repetition of two or more vowel sounds within a line

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Consonance

repetition of two or more consonant sounds within a line

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Alliteration

the repetition of one or more initial sounds, usually consonants, in words within a line

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Onomatopoeia

the use of a word whose sound suggests its meaning

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Metaphor

a figure of speech that makes a direct comparison of unlike objects by identification or substitution

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Simile

a direct comparison of two unlike objects, using like or as

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Conceit

an extended metaphor comparing two unlike objects with powerful effect (it owes its roots to elaborate analogies in Petrarch and to the Metaphysical poets, particularly Donne)

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Personification

a figure of speech in which objects and animals have human qualities

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Apostrophe

an address to a person or personified object not present

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Metonymy

the substitution of a word that relates to the object or person to be named, in place of the name itself

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Synecdoche

a figure of speech in which a part represents the whole object or idea

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Hyperbole

gross exaggeration for effect: overstatement

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Litotes

a form of understatement in which the negative of an antonym is used to achieve emphasis and intensity

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Irony

the contrast between actual meaning and the suggestion of another meaning

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Verbal Irony

meaning one thing and saying another

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Dramatic Irony

two levels of meaning - what the speaker says and what he/she means, and what the speaker says and the author means

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Situational Irony

when the reality of a situation differs from the anticipated or intended effect; when something unexpected occurs

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Symbolism

the use of one subject to suggest another, hidden object or idea

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Imagery

the use of words to represent things, actions, or ideas by sensory description

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Paradox

a statement that appears self-contradictory, but that underlines a basis of truth

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Oxymoron

contradictory terms brought together to express a paradox for strong effect

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Allusion

a reference to an outside fact, event, or other source

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